The makruhs of namaz are of two kinds. When used alone, the word makruh means Tahrimi makruh, which is a prohibition that has been determined by dalil (proof) or deduction (zann). Something for whose prohibition there is no proof or witness but which it is good not to do is called Tanzihi makruh. It is (Tahrimi) makruh not to do the wajibs [and the muakkad sunnats] and (tanzihi) makruh not to do the [sunnats that are not muakkad] in namaz. Tanzihi makruh is closer to halal and Tahrimi makruh is closer to haram. Though the namaz performed with makruhs is sahih, it will not be accepted (maqbul), that is, one will not receive the blessings promised. Below are the forty-four makruhs of namaz:
1 – It is makruh to drape your coat over your shoulders instead of putting it on. It is not makruh to leave the front of your coat open or shut.
2 – When prostrating for the sajda, it is makruh to pull up your skirts or your trouser cuffs.
3 – It is makruh to begin namaz with your skirts or sleeves rolled up. If you made an ablution in a hurry in order to catch the imam and as a result left them rolled up, you should unroll them slowly during namaz. Likewise, if a person’s headgear falls off as he performs namaz, he had better put it back on his head. [Therefore, it is makruh to begin namaz with short sleeves that only go down to the elbows, with a flannel, or with short trousers that are just below the knees. It is wrong to say: “It is makruh to perform namaz with a shirt with long sleeves that are rolled up, but it is not makruh with a short sleeved shirt.” Every fiqh book refers to: “rolled-up skirts and sleeves.” A skirt is not rolled up. But it is lifted up so as to uncover the legs. The book Nimat-i Islam says concerning the eleventh of the makruhs of namaz: “It is makruh for a man to begin namaz with bare arms.” Also, it is written on the two hundred and sixty-eighth page of the book Marifatnama that it is makruh to perform namaz with bare arms]. Sleeves that are above the elbows are even worse. If a person rolls up his trousers or sleeves during namaz, his namaz becomes nullified.
4 – Useless movements, such as playing with your clothes, are makruh. But useful movements do not bring harm upon your namaz, e.g. wiping the sweat off your forehead with your hand. When your trousers or loose robe stick on your skin, it is not makruh to pull them away from your skin lest the shape of your awrat parts are seen. It is makruh to shake off dust. There is a hadith prohibiting useless movements in namaz and laughing loudly in a cemetery. It is not useless to scratch yourself during namaz, but raising your hand three times within one rukn nullifies your namaz.
5 – It is makruh to perform namaz by wearing clothes that you work in or that you could not wear if you were to see your superiors. Yet it is not makruh if you have no other clothes. [If you have enough money you should buy extra clothes.] It is not makruh to perform namaz by wearing pajamas or any other clothing that you wear when going to bed.
6 – It is makruh to have something in your mouth that will prevent you from reciting the Qur’an al-karim correctly. If it prevents you from pronouncing the Qur’an correctly your namaz becomes nullified.
7 – To perform namaz bare-headed. If a person does not cover his head because he slights the importance of covering his head in namaz, it is makruh. But if he ignores it because he means to slight namaz itself, he becomes a disbeliever. Kasal (indolence) means not to do something because one does not want to do it. But inability means not to do something because one cannot do it though one wants to do it. If one’s headgear falls, it is recommendable to put it back on one’s head with a single action. There is no harm in performing namaz bare-headed in order to show your humbleness, yet you still had better cover your head. It is also makruh to uncover your head seeking comfort and relief from heat. [You can cover your head with a headgear of any color when performing namaz. Books of din do not contain any statements concerning black headgear being worn by Jews in synagogues. It is sunnat to wear a black headgear. See chapter 8!]
[Rasulullah and the Sahaba performed namaz with their blessed na’ls [pattens] on. Na’ls are shoes with leather soles. It is written in the book Targhibussalat: “It has been said by savants that a person sitting in namaz barefooted, without socks on, should use his right hand to cover the sole of his foot. For it is bad manners to show your soles to other believers at any time. In namaz it is even more distasteful. According to some other savants, one must not cover one’s bare foot with one’s hand during namaz. For it is sunnat to put one’s hands on one’s thighs when sitting in namaz. And the person sitting behind you, in turn, should look down at his own lap in adherence to the sunnat. When both individuals sit in accordance with the sunnat no bad manners will occur.” As it can be seen, even according to those savants who say that one should not cover one’s foot with one’s hand when sitting, being barefooted is repugnant. Since it is makruh to take one’s hands away from one’s thighs while sitting, one should not commit a second makruh in order to make up for the makruh of being bare-footed. Savants have said that if the person behind you looks at his lap, in regards to him you will become secure against annoying the person sitting behind you. As written in Halabi kabir, it is makruh not to keep the hands in the position of the sunnat when standing, in the ruku, in the sajdas, and when sitting. And it is for this reason that it is written: “It is makruh to omit a wajib or a sunnat. Therefore it is makruh for men to cover their bare feet with their hand while in the sajda,” in the beginning of the makruhs of namaz in the book Maraqilfalah and at the end of the makruhs in Halabi. The book Bahjatulfatawa, which supports its every fatwa with proofs from books of fiqh, has been unable to show any proof for this wrong fatwa and has left the space for a proof blank. Ibni Abidin says at the end of the makruhs of namaz: “It is better to perform namaz with na’ls or mests than to be bare-footed. Furthermore, you will have disagreed with Jews. A hadith ash-Sharif declares: ‘Perform namaz with na’ls on lest you be like Jews.’ Rasulullah and the Sahaba would perform namaz with na’ls which they wore outdoors. Their na’ls were clean, and the floor of Masjid an-Nabi was covered with sand. They would not enter the Masjid with dirty na’ls.” When your shoes are smeared with najasat, you must not enter a mosque with them on. You can carry out the sunnat by wearing socks. And a person whose socks are najs or who does not have any socks to wear should perform namaz with a loose robe that hangs down to his heels. Also, it is written in the books Halabi, Bariqa and Hadiqa that there are numerous blessings in the namaz that is performed with covered feet.
It is not permissible to perform namaz with bare head and feet, to make the sajda on a higher place, or to force those who are under your command to perform namaz in this manner by saying, “Non-Muslims pray with bare head and feet in churches. As they do, we must pray in a civilized manner.” It is makruh to be like disbelievers during worships. And he who disapproves of the manners ordered by Islam becomes a disbeliever.]
8 – It is makruh to begin namaz when you need to urinate, defecate, or when you need to break wind. If the need happens during namaz, you must break the namaz. If you do not, you will become sinful. It is better to break the namaz even if it will cause you to miss the jamaat. Rather than performing namaz in a manner that is makruh, it is better to miss the jamaat, which is sunnat. But it is not makruh (not to break the namaz) lest the prayer time will expire or lest you will miss the namaz of janaza.
9 – It is makruh for men to begin namaz with their hair tied in a knot on the back of their neck, wound round their head, or gathered on the top of their head and fastened with thread. If a man does so during namaz, his namaz becomes nullified. Namaz is performed bareheaded when you are in the ihram in Mecca.
10 – During namaz, it is makruh to sweep stones or soil away from the place of sajda. If such things are giving you trouble making the sajda, it is permissible to get rid of them with one movement. However, you should clean them away before namaz.
11 – When joining a line of worshippers in order to perform namaz in a mosque, when beginning namaz, or during namaz, it is makruh to crack your fingers by bending them or to insert the fingers of both hands between each other. If it is necessary, it is not makruh to crack your fingers before getting ready for namaz.
12 – It is makruh to put your hand on your flank during namaz.
13 – It is makruh to turn your head (face) around and tanzihi makruh to look around by turning your eyes. If you turn your chest away from the qibla, your namaz becomes nullified.
14 – In the tashahhuds (sitting and reciting certain prayers during namaz), to sit like a dog, that is, to sit on your buttocks with erected thighs while bringing your knees in touch with your chest and putting your hands on the floor, is makruh.
15 – In the sajda it is makruh for men to lay their forearms on the floor. But women must lay their forearms on the floor.
16 – It is makruh to perform namaz toward a person’s face. It is makruh even if the person is far away from you. It is not makruh if there is someone in between whose back is turned towards you.
17 – It is makruh to acknowledge someone’s greeting with your hand or head. It is not makruh to answer someone’s question with your hand or head. An example of this is when someone asks you how many rakats you have performed, to answer using your fingers. But if you change your place or move to the line in front immediately upon someone’s demand, your namaz becomes nullified. [See the eleventh of the Mufsids of namaz!]
18 – It is stated in Targhib-us-salat that it is makruh to yawn outside of namaz as well as during namaz. The lower lip must be squeezed between the teeth. If you cannot help it, you should cover your mouth with the outer part of your right hand when standing in namaz and with your left hand in the other rukns or when not performing namaz. Unnecessary yawning is caused by Satan. Prophets (alaihimussalam) did not yawn.
19 – It is tanzihi makruh to close your eyes during namaz. It is not makruh if you do it lest your mind will be distracted.
20 – It is makruh for the imam to stand in the mihrab. The hollowed out part in the wall of the qibla is called the mihrab. When his feet are outside of the mihrab, it is not makruh for him to make the sajda in the mihrab. A person is considered to be located in the place where his feet are. The reason for this is because priests conduct public worships by staying alone in an isolated room. In a mosque, if the imam of the first jamaat does not conduct the namaz by standing on the mihrab, it is makruh.
21 – It is tanzihi makruh for the imam to begin namaz alone at a place half a meter higher than the floor where the jamaat are. This prohibition is intended to eliminate the possibility of an imam resembling priests.
22 – Also it is makruh for an imam to begin namaz alone at a lower place.
23 – It is makruh to perform namaz in the back line while there is room in the front line or to perform it alone in the back line because there is no room in the front line. When there is no room in the front line, you wait for a probable newcomer until the ruku’ instead of performing it alone. If no one comes you make your way gently into the front line. If you cannot go into the front line you get someone you trust in the front line to move back to the rear line with you. If there is no one you can trust, then perform it alone.
24 – It is tahrimi makruh to perform namaz with clothes that have a picture or pictures of living things on them, such as humans or animals. It is not makruh if there are pictures of lifeless things on them. Whether for reverence or for execration, whether small or big, it is haram to draw or paint pictures or make statues of living things. See the sixtieth and eighty- fifth letters in the book Makatib-i Sharifa! Translation of the eighty-fifth letter exists in our book.
[It is explained detailedly within the subject concerning the afflictions incurred by hands in the book Hadiqa: “No matter if you put it on, it is always makruh to put any clothes with a picture of a living creature. Having any pictures on you is permissible if covered.” It is understood from this information as well as from the two hundred and thirty-eighth page of the fifth volume of Ibni Abidin that it is permissible to have your picture taken for identity papers, documents, essential deeds, and other necessities by keeping them covered. A hadith on the twenty-sixth page of Zawajir declares: “When you find pictures tear them, destroy them!” However, if doing so causes fitna or hostility, you should not do it. None of the Prophets, the Sahaba, or the great men of din had a photograph. Those abominable, ugly pictures that are shown in newspapers and in the movies in an effort to portray them are all false. They are made in order to earn money and to deceive Muslims. Along with the fact that it is haram also to hang such blessed pictures high on walls, it is haram to put them at low places. Since it is haram to draw pictures of living things anywhere, whether with bare awrat parts or with covered awrat parts, whether small or big, likewise, the money charged for them is also haram. This has been established as a haram in order to prevent idolatry. It is written in the explanatory book Imdat by Tahtawi that when you are not performing namaz also it is makruh to wear clothes with pictures of living things on them.
Sayyid Abdulhakim-i Arwasi (Quddisa sirruh) says in one of his letters: “It is permissible to use things such as handkerchiefs and coins that have pictures of living things drawn on them. For such things are despicable, contemptible; they are not honored.” This fact is written also in the third volume of Al-fiqh-u-alal-Madhahib-il-arba’a. Hadrat Ibni Hajar-i Haitami Makki (rahmatullahi ‘alaih) says in his fatwa:
“Existence of pictures of living things on such articles as handkerchiefs and coins is not harmful. For it is not permissible to use pictures of living things on respected articles, but it is permissible to use them on disrespected things.” Then, it is permissible to have them on the floor, on things laid on the floor, on cushions, mats, handkerchiefs, bills, stamps, in closed places, such as pockets, bags, closets, on those parts of one’s clothes that are below one’s navel, but it is haram to keep them or to hang them above the navel. It is haram to use pictures of women or pictures with exposed awrat parts even without lust at any place or to look at them lustfully.
It is written on the six hundred and thirty-third page of the second volume of Hadiqa: “It is tahrimi makruh to put or lay on the floor any piece of paper or cloth or prayer rug that has some writing or even one letter on it. For it is insulting to use them for any purpose whatsoever or to lay them on the floor. And it is disbelief to lay or use them in order to insult them. It has been said that it is permissible to write them on walls or to hang pieces of writing on walls.” Hence, it is understood that it is not permissible to lay prayer rugs with pieces of writings or pictures of the Kaba or mosques on them on the floor in order to pray on them. Nonetheless, it is permissible to hang them on walls for decoration.
As it is seen, Islam has prohibited pictures and statues of human beings that serve as instruments to ridicule human beings, that are used for worshipping living things, and which drift youngsters towards fornication and seduction of married people. However, Islam permits pictures of the anatomical parts of living things, of plants, and all kinds of pictures pertaining to physics, chemistry, astronomy and engineering. It has commanded drawing and utilization of pictures that are necessary for knowledge and science. Islam, as always, has classified pictures into two groups: useful and harmful and has commanded use of the useful ones while prohibiting the harmful ones. Then, it is a blind claim and a slander for the enemies of the religion to say, “Muslims say that pictures are prohibited, which is retrogression.”]
25 – If the picture of a living thing is drawn on the wall or on pieces of cloth or paper hanging or put on a wall just above the head, in front, or just to the right or left of a person who is performing namaz, it is makruh. Even if not in a living form, a picture of the cross is like the picture of a living thing. For it means to be like Christians. It is makruh to imitate their evil practices, even if not in order to be like them, or to imitate their unharmful habits with the intention of resembling them. [In fact, it is written in the books Targhib-us-salat and Nisab-ul-ahbar that it is makruh to perform namaz at such places as well as places where people are drinking alcohol, gambling or playing musical instruments, and prayers said at these places will not be accepted. Apparatuses through which musical instruments are heard and pictures that are haram to look at are watched are like musical instruments.] If the picture of a living or lifeless thing is on something upon which a person is standing, sitting or leaning, his namaz does not become makruh. If the picture is on the walls behind the person performing namaz or on the ceiling it is khafif (light) makruh.
It is not makruh to perform namaz on prayer rugs or mats possessing pictures of living things on the parts other than where prostration is made, since laying them on the floor means belittling them (Durar). [Accordingly, it is not permissible to lay the carpets with pictures of the Kaba, mosques or pieces of holy writing on the ground.]
If the picture is under the foot of the person performing namaz, on the place where he is sitting, on his body or in his hand, it is makruh. [Hence it is understood that pictures in one’s pocket do not make one’s namaz makruh.] But a picture hanging on one’s wrist is makruh. For it prevents one from placing one’s hands as prescribed by the sunnat. If the picture on a coin or ring or on any part of a person is extremely small, that is, if when it is put on the floor, the person standing cannot make out its limbs, his namaz does not become makruh. When covered, it is not makruh if it is big, either. If the head of the living thing has been cut off, or if its face, chest or belly has been erased or covered with something, the namaz does not become makruh.
With pictures of lifeless things, such as trees or sceneries, no matter where they are, namaz does not become makruh. For small or headless pictures or pictures of lifeless things have never been worshipped. There were those who worshipped the sun, the moon, the stars, green trees, but they worshipped those things themselves. They did not worship their pictures. It is also makruh to perform namaz towards these things.
Angels of compassion do not enter a house where there is a big picture of a living thing placed at a respected place, a dog, or a person who is junub. But the angles of haphaza leave a person only during sexual intercourse and when he goes into the restroom. The two angels called Kiraman katibin, who are on a person’s shoulders and who write down his good and bad deeds, and those angels who protect a person against genies are called Angels of Haphaza. Allahu ta’ala informs the angels of what a person does in the restroom, and the angels write down his actions when he comes out of the restroom. The angels do not write on anything or in letters. As we gather information in our mind and memory, so they gather a person’s actions at some place. Today there are various ways of writing, such as the recording of voices on an apparatus that we call a tape recorder or on sound films. In the heavens there are angels writing with pens (tools) that are unknown to us. For disbelievers, only their evil deeds are written down. There are genies who pester everyone while angels protect us against them.
It is permissible according to Imam-i Abu Yusuf to buy dolls for children to play with.
26 – It is tanzihi makruh to count ayats, or tasbihs with the hand during namaz. It is permissible to count them through the heart or by moving the fingers. Outside of namaz it is permissible to count them with fingers or to use beads. Once Rasulullah saw a woman counting the tasbihs with seeds and did not forbid her. It is makruh to use beads for ostentation.
It does not nullify namaz, nor is it makruh, to kill a serpent or a scorpion that is approaching you and may sting you. It is mustahab to kill it with your left shoe. A white snake that crawls straight without curling is a genie. You must not kill him if he does not harm you. But it is permissible to kill him, too. For genies promised Rasulullah (sall- Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) that they would not enter Muslims’ homes. Entering a home, they have gone back on their word. First you should warn him by saying “Irji’ bi-iznillah.” Then, if he will not go away, you should kill him. But you cannot warn him if you are performing namaz. Not killing a genie disguised as a snake immediately is not intended to respect them but, to prevent their harm.
27 – It is not makruh to perform namaz against the backs of sitting or standing people, even if they are talking. It is makruh to perform it against a person’s face or against the backs of people who are talking loudly.
28 – It is not makruh to perform namaz against the Qur’an, a sword, a candle, a candle- lamp, any lamp, flames, against instruments of war such as pistols, or against a person who is lying asleep. For those have never been worshipped. Magians worship fire, not flames. But it is makruh to perform it against a fire with flames, too.
29 – It is tahrimi makruh to perform namaz by wrapping yourself in a towel from head to foot.
30 – It is tahrimi makruh to perform namaz with the top of your head bare by winding a turban round your head.
31 – It is tahrimi makruh to perform namaz by covering your mouth and nose. Magians worship in that manner. [You must not perform namaz with a mask, gloves, or spectacles that prevent your forehead from touching the floor. Unless there is a darurat you must not perform namaz with anything that prevents your forehead, nose or hands from touching the floor, that is, from doing any fard or sunnat. There is no necessity for wearing such things during namaz, even for women].
32 – It is makruh to throw phlegm from the throat without a strong necessity. If blood formed in the mouth is not a mouthful, neither its formation nor swallowing nullifies your ablution or namaz. So is the case with vomiting. [Halabi al-Kabir and Hindiyya].
33 – Amal-i qalil, that is, moving one hand once or twice, is makruh. [See the fifteenth of things that nullify namaz!] It is permissible to kill a louse of flea with amal-i qalil, but it is makruh to catch or kill it if it is not biting you. It is haram to leave such insects in the mosque whether they are alive or dead.
34 – It is makruh to omit one of the sunnats of namaz. There are two groups of sunnat. The first group is Sunan-i huda. They are the muakkad [strong] sunnats. The second group is Sunan-i zawaid. They are the sunnats that are not muakkad. The mustahabs and the mandubs are in this category, according to the savants.
It is tahrimi makruh to omit a muakkad sunnat in namaz. It is tanzihi makruh to omit a sunnat that is not muakkad. It is not makruh but khilaf-i awla to omit a mustahab. That is, it is a blessing to do the mustahabs, and no sin is incurred for not doing them, but in that case you will be deprived of their blessings.
35 – Without a darurat, it is makruh to begin namaz with your child in your arms. It is not makruh if there is a darurat to do so, provided the child’s clothes are clean.
36 – It is makruh to perform namaz against things that distract your heart and prevent your khushu’ such as ornamented things, plays, musical instruments, or any food that you desire. It is makruh to perform namaz by leaving your shoes behind you. This last makruh is written on the one hundred and eighty-sixth page within the subject of Hajj in the book Durr-ul-mukhtar, at the end of Halabi-yi kabir, and in Bazaziyya. It is also written in detail within the subject of suspicion in taharat at the end of the books Bariqa and Hadiqa.
37 – It is makruh to lean on a wall or mast when performing the fard namaz if there is no strong necessity to do so. It is not makruh to do so while performing the supererogatory namaz.
38 – It is makruh to lift your hands up to your ears when bowing for the ruku’ or when straightening up from the ruku’.
39 – It is makruh to complete the qiraat after bowing for the ruku’.
40 – In the sajdas or in the ruku’, it is makruh to put your head down or to raise your head before the imam does so.
41 – It is makruh to perform namaz at places that may be najs, such as in a cemetery, in a bath or church; but it is not makruh to perform it after cleaning or washing such places, or in the dressing room of a bath or in a mosque at the cemetery. In case you cannot perform namaz at another place because of cold weather or for some other reason, or if you cannot find another place, it is permissible to perform it in a church alone or in jamaat. But you must leave the place right after namaz. For a church is a place where devils meet together. If you empty a church of the symbols of disbelief, it will never be makruh to perform namaz there. It is makruh to perform it against najasat that is not covered.
42 – It is makruh to perform it against a grave. Wahhabis say that it is shirk (to attribute a partner to Allahu ta’ala).
[It is written on the six hundred and thirtieth page of the second volume of Hadiqa: “A hadith declares: ‘Curse be upon those who perform namaz on a grave!’ To perform namaz on a grave is to imitate a Jew. Therefore it has been said to be makruh. It is written in the books Haniyya and Hawi that it is not makruh to perform it at those parts of a cemetery where there are no graves. If the grave is behind the worshipper, or in front of him but so far that it would be permissible for someone else to pass in front of him within such a distance, it is not makruh, either. Also, to turn the graves of Prophets or pious Muslims into mosques is to imitate Jews. Because it is like attributing a partner to Allahu ta’ala while worshipping, our Prophet prohibited it and prayed: ‘O my Allah! Don’t make my grave an idol that is worshipped!’ But if a mosque is made close to a pious Muslim or if you perform namaz at a place close to his grave thinking that you will attain Allah’s compassion through him or that your worship will be useful to him also, and if you do not think of worshipping him, it is not harmful at all. For, Hadrat Ismail’s grave is in a place called Hatim, which is close to Kaba. Because the most valuable namaz performed in Masjid al- haram is the one performed at that place, hajjis try to perform namaz there. It is written in the explanation of Masabih that this is so. It is written on the two hundred and sixty-eighth page of Marifatnama: ‘It is makruh to perform namaz against a grave that does not have a curtain.’ It is written on the three hundred and twentieth page of the fifth chapter of Fatawa- i Hindiyya: “It is not makruh if there is a curtain between the qibla of the mosque and the grave or if the grave is on one side or behind you.”
It is written in Fatawa-i Faydiyya: “There are three kinds of pious foundations: those that are only for the poor, those that are first for the rich and then for the poor, and those that are both for the rich and for the poor. Schools, inns, hospitals, cemeteries, mosques and fountains have been established both for the rich and for the poor.” The prohibition against making tombs in those cemeteries established by pious foundations is intended so as not to occupy the places belonging to the poor. Therefore, it cannot be said that such prohibitions are enforced because they are haram.]
43 – It is tanzihi makruh not to sit in accordance with the sunnat in the tashahhuds (sitting postures). But it is not makruh if you have an excuse.
44 – It is tanzihi makruh to recite in the second rakat the same ayat you have recited in the first rakat. It is tahrimi makruh to recite an ayat previous to it. These errors are not makruh if they are done as a result of forgetfulness. It is makruh in the second rakat to say three ayats longer than what was said in the first rakat. [See thirteenth chapter!].
45 – It is makruh not to stand up for the final sunnat immediately after the fard [Targhib- us-salat].
THE FOLLOWING ARE REASONS FORWHICH IT IS PERMISSIBLE TO BREAK NAMAZ:
1 – In order to kill a snake;
2 – In order to catch an escaping animal;
3 – In order to rescue a flock from wolves;
4 – In order to take food that is boiling over away from the fire;
5 – In order to protect your or someone else’s property that is worth no less than one dirham of silver from destruction; [See the word Dirham-i shar’i in the first chapter of the fifth fascicle.]
6 – In order to urinate or to break wind;
7 – When there is no fear that the prayer time may expire or that you may be late for the jamaat, in order to rid yourself of something that nullifies namaz according to another Madhhab, e.g. to clean the najasat that is less than one dirham or to make an ablution when you remember that you have touched a woman who is a namahram, you can break your namaz.
THERE ARE TWO REASONS THAT MAKEIT FARD (NECESSARY) TO BREAK ANY NAMAZ:
1 – Namaz must be broken in order to save a person who screams for help, to save a blind person who is about to fall down into a well, to save a person who is about to burn or drown, or to put out a fire.
2 – When your mother, father, grandmother or grandfather calls you, it is not wajib for you to break a fard namaz, but it is permissible; yet, you must not break it if it is not necessary. But supererogatory namaz [even the sunnats] must be broken. If they call for help, it is necessary to break the fard namaz, too. If they call you knowing that you are performing namaz, you may not break even the supererogatory namaz. But if they call you and do not know that you are performing namaz, you have to break it.
THERE ARE FIVE THINGS THAT ARE MAKRUH TO DO WHEN NOT PERFORMING NAMAZ:
1 – It is tahrimi makruh to turn your front or back towards the qibla when emptying the bowels or urinating in a restroom or any other place. It is not makruh if you forget or if there is the danger that you may dirty your clothes or if there is some other danger.
2 – It is tanzihi makruh to turn your front or back towards the qibla when cleaning yourself after relieving nature, or to urinate or empty the bowels towards the sun or the moon.
3 – To make a small child relieve itself by holding it towards one of these directions is makruh for the adult who holds it. Likewise, to have a small child do something that is haram for adults is haram for the adult who has the child do it. For example, a person who makes a boy wear silk clothes or ornaments it with jewels or makes it drink alcohol commits a haram by doing so.
4 – It is tahrimi makruh to stretch your legs or only one leg towards the qibla without a good excuse. Yet it is not makruh to do so with an excuse or by mistake.
5 – Also it is makruh to stretch your legs toward a Qur’an or other books of din. It is not makruh if they are on a higher level. [It is written in the fifth chapter of Hindiyya: “It is permissible and even advisable to keep the Qur’an in your house only for blessings and abundance without ever reading it. It is makruh to write in Arabic a disbeliever’s name and insult it because Islamic letters have to be respected.”]
It is written on the thirteen hundred and sixty-eighth page of the book Bariqa: “It is written in the book Tatarhaniyya that an old and torn copy of the Qur’an that cannot be used must not be burned, but it can be wrapped in a clean piece of cloth and buried, or it can be put in a clean place that never becomes dusty. The book Sirajiyya says that it can be buried or burned. The same is written also in the book Munyatul-Mufti. The book Mujtaba says that burying it is better than leaving it in flowing water. And the book Minhaj-ud-din, known as Halimi and written by Husain Jurjani, one of the Shafi’i scholars, says that it is not forbidden to burn it; when Hadrat ‘Uthman (radi-Allahu ‘anh) burned the copy of the Qur’an that contained mansukh ayats none of the Sahaba (radi-Allahu ta’ala alaihim ajmain) protested against it. Burning it is better than removing the writing by washing it. For the water used in washing it will be trodden on sometime later, according to savants. Qadi Husain said that it was haram to burn it because it would be sacrilege. And Nawawi said that it was makruh. As we infer from all of these, it is better to remove the writing by washing it or to bury it than to burn it. Translation from Bariqa has come to an end. As understood from all of these, it is insulting and haram to leave old copies of the Qur’an that cannot be used any more in places where they will be trodden upon underfoot, to wrap or cover things with them or to use them in making paper bags or other things of this sort. It is necessary to bury them in places where they will not be dug up until they rot and turn back into earth or, if this is impossible, to burn them and bury the ashes or throw them in the sea or river. In order to save them from being disrespected, it is permissible and even necessary to burn them. This is understood also from the fatwas of Sirajiyya, Minyatul- Mufti, and Halimi.