Category Archives: Bid’ah

Sunni Muslims’ Al-Mahdi (Mehdi) Caution Read with Fear of Allah SWT


This is to be taken as knowledge to teach others right from wrong do not I repeat DO NOT Draw to far into this.

Al-Mahdi (the Mahdi) is an Arabic word which means ” The Guided “. In Persian, Turkish and Urdu languages, he is called Mehdi (instead of Mahdi). The Mahdi is the title of this important Muslim leader, not his actual name. His actual name is going to be Mohammad and he is supposed to be a descendant of Prophet Mohammad صلى الله عليه وسلم . Some Hadiths specify that the name of the Mahdi’s father will be like the name of Prophet Mohammad’s صلى الله عليه وسلم  father, meaning Abd-Allah.

 

The Mahdi is mentioned in several Hadiths, but is not mentioned in the Hadiths that list the Ten Major Signs of the Day of Resurrection. Most likely, the reason is that the Mahdi will appear before the Major Signs start. So, the Mahdi could be regarded among the last Minor Signs, before the Major Signs start.  It is likely that the Major Signs will start during the reign of the Mahdi.  However, there will be signs indicating the rise of the Mahdi, some of them will occur immediately before he appears and some of them during the initial period after he appears. Signs of the Mahdi are totally different from the Major Signs of the Day of Resurrection.

 

Abdullah bin Masood has reported that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, “The World will not pass away before the Arabs are ruled by a man (referring to the Mahdi) of my Ahl Bayt (family) whose name will be like mine.” (Abu Dawud & Tirmizi)

 

Abdullah. Ibn Masood reported that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, “Even if there remains only a day before the World ends, the almighty Allah will greatly prolong that day to send a man from me (my progeny), from members of my House (family). His name will be similar to my name and his father’s name similar to my father’s name. He will fill the Earth with equity (fairness) and justice, as it (previously) was filled with oppression and injustice.” (Abu Dawud)

 

– The Mahdi (Mehdi) is not the “Messiah” of Muslims. Muslims recognize Jesus Christ as Messiah and this is very clearly mentioned in the Quran.

– Sunni Muslims are expecting 3 main individuals to appear in the End Times: (1) at least one caliph (ruler) whose is referred to as Mahdi (good man), (2) Anti-Christ (evil man), and (3) Jesus Christ (good man).

– Sunni Muslims are expecting Jesus to return to Earth, by descending from Heaven.

– For Sunni Muslims, the Mahdi (Mehdi) is a unique Muslim leader who will appear in the End Times and act as a Caliph, ruling the Muslim World. He is not a prophet. According to our numerical analysis of the Quran, it seems that the Mahdi will be fulfilling a divine mission and will act as a Warner and Carrier of Good News.

– Most probably, shortly after Jesus descends from Heaven, the Mahdi will die and Jesus will become the Caliph of Muslims.

– For Sunni Muslims, Jesus will play a very important role. Jesus will kill the Anti-Christ and rule the World after the Mahdi dies and Jesus’ reign will be longer.

– For the Shia, the Mahdi’s role is far more important than Jesus’ role. The Shia believe that the Mahdi (not Jesus) will be the one who will kill the Anti-Christ. Shia even claim that the Mahdi will kill Satan.

Caution: In this page, we are aiming to present the largest number of Hadiths available about the Mahdi (Mehdi) in Sunni books, without screening them. However, even in Sunni books, some transmitters a Hadith could be Shia. Many of the Shia do not publicize that they are Shia. So, Sunni Hadith books may contain narrations transmitted by Shia. The Mahdi (Mehdi) is an extremely important figure in the theology of the Shia and they have created and spread lots of false or unreliable stories about him. That is why you need to be very cautious when reading Hadiths about Mahdi.

There are only 2 Sunni Muslim books (Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim) in which most of the Hadiths is considered Sahih (correct, authentic, and reliable) because their authors have screened the Hadiths and included only the Hadiths these authors deemed authentic.

There are no Hadiths about the Mahdi in Sahih Bukhari.

 

 

 

 

Many individuals in the past falsely claimed to be the Mahdi. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (the founder of Ahmadiya or Qadiani Movement) was one of those who falsely claimed to be the Mahdi.

 

1. Shia’s Imam Mahdi vs. Sunni’s Al-Mahdi

Both Sunni Muslims and Shia are awaiting a person whose is referred to as Al-Mahdi (Shia call him Imam Mahdi because they are expecting him to be their 12th Imam). However, the both identity and characteristics of the Mahdi of the Sunnis is significantly different from the identity and characteristics of Shia’s Imam Mahdi.

For Sunni Muslims, the Mahdi is just a Muslim leader who will act as a Caliph, ruling the Muslim World. He is not a prophet. For Sunnis, the Mahdi must be a descendant of Prophet Mohammad. His name must be Mohammad and his father’s name must be Abdullah, like the name of Prophet Mohammad’s father. Sunni Muslims’ Al-Mahdi has to be a good man. In contrast, Shia’s Imam Mahdi, as portrayed in Shia’s books, seems to be an evil man whom the Shia expect will persecute Sunni Muslims, resurrect and crucify Prophet Mohammad’s صلى الله عليه وسلم  Companions, Abu Bakr and Omar as well as Prophet Mohammad’s صلى الله عليه وسلم  wife, Aisha.

Shia’s Imam Mahdi is their 12th Imam. Shia claim that Imam Mahdi  is Mohammad bin Hasan Al-Askari who disappeared as a young boy at the age of 5 and went into hiding (or state of occultation) and has been hiding for 10 centuries. Some Shia say he is hiding in a tunnel. The Shia are awaiting for him to emerge from his state of occultation in the End Times. By the way, there is no proof, even in Shia’s books, that his father, Hasan Al-Askari, had a son called Mohammad.

According to Shia’s books, the Shia’s Imam Mahdi will be someone who rules based on the Laws of David. He will rely on scriptures, other than the Quran. So, Shia’s Mahdi fits the characteristics of the Dajjal (Anti-Christ).

The Shia claim that Imam Mahdi’s father is Hasan Al-Askari. This contradicts with Prophet Mohammad’s صلى الله عليه وسلم  hadith that says the name of the Mahdi’s father will be the same as the name of Prophet Mohammad’s صلى الله عليه وسلم  father, which means his father should be Abdullah.

Shia’s Imam Mahdi is not a normal human being since they are claiming that he has been alive for 1200 years. Sunnis reject this because there is no Hadith that says the Mahdi will not be a normal human being. In contrast, Shia’s Imam Mahdi resembles the Dajjal (Anti-Christ) in many ways. Based on a Hadith of Prophet Mohammad صلى الله عليه وسلم , the Anti-Christ was alive at the time of the Prophet and is still alive, but will not appear until God permits him to do so.

All this evidence leads us to believe that the evil founders of Shiism, mostly Jews who pretended to convert to Islam outwardly while remaining Jews in their hearts,  have purposefully portrayed, in their books, Imam Mahdi as someone similar in many ways to the Anti-Christ & the Jewish Mashiah (Messiah) son of David  in order to:

(a) motivate the Shia to reject the real Mahdi when he appears because he is a Sunni Muslim and does not fit into their expectations, and

(b) to deceive the Shia into following the Jewish Messiah who is going to be the Anti-Christ, thinking that he is the Mahdi.

Shia’s Imam Mahdi is a fictitious, imaginary character. He never existed as a child. He does not exist now, contrary to what they believe. Therefore, there will never be any person appearing in the future who will fulfil all the characteristics and signs of Shia’s Imam Mahdi. However, we believe that the Dajjal (AntiChrist) may claim to be Shia’s Imam Mahdi as well as the Mashiah (Messiah) of the Jews and Jesus Christ of the Christians. To convince the Christians and because Christians is God, the Anti-Christ will claim to be God and perform some miracles.

The Sunnis’ Mahdi, who is the real Mahdi and appear before the Dajjal, will only identify himself as a Muslim, not a Sunni and not a Shia.  Many of the Shia will hopefully accept the Sunnis’ Mahdi. However, it is possible that the more wicked Shia may practice Taqiya and accept Sunnis’ Mahdi only outwardly while rejecting him in their hearts. When the Dajjal (Anti-Christ) appears, the wicked Shia may follow of the Dajjal.

For more information and details:

   (a) Shia’s Imam Mahdi

   (b) The Dajjal (Anti-Christ)

 

2. Khilafa (Caliphate)

The recommended governing method of the Muslim nation in Islam is called Khilafa (Caliphate) headed by a Khalifa (Caliph) who rules all lands controlled by Muslims. The Caliph is supposed to be chosen through a method called Bay’a (whereby Muslims offer allegiance to the Caliph) and the Caliph can be any good Muslim, regardless of which family clan or tribe he belongs to. The word Caliph means a successor, in other words, the one who comes after another ruler. After Prophet Mohammad صلى الله عليه وسلم four successive Caliphs reigned who enjoyed wide spread approval among Muslims when they were chosen. They followed the methodology of Prophet Mohammad صلى الله عليه وسلم  in governing. They are: Abu Bakr Al-Siddique, Omar bin Al-Khattab, Uthman bin Affan, and Ali bin Abi Taleb. After Ali, there was a dispute over who should be chosen next. Some people favored Ali’s son Al-Hasan (who is Prophet Mohammad’s grandson) while others favored Muawiya bin Abi Sufyan, who was a powerful governor of AsSham. Al-Hasan reigned only 6 months and then resigned. Muawiya reigned for several years and chose his son Yazid to succeed him. Thus, the Umayya dynasty (Muawiya’s tribe is called Bani Umayya) started.  So, the Islamic Bay’a system was no longer followed. Under proper Caliphate system, any good Muslim can be chosen as Caliph.  Instead under the dynasties that ruled the Muslims, the eligibility to become a ruler became restricted to the same ruling family or dynasty. Prophet Mohammad صلى الله عليه وسلم has accurately prophesied the governing methods that came to be followed after him and has prophesied that the proper Caliphate system will be applied again around the end of time. The Mahdi (Mehdi) is expected to rule as a proper Caliph.

تكون النبوة فيكم ما شاء الله أن تكون ، ثم يرفعها الله إذا شاء أن يرفعها ، ثم تكون خلافة على منهاج النبوة ، فتكون ما شاء الله أن تكون ، ثم يرفعها الله إذا شاء أن يرفعها ، ثم تكون ملكا عاضا ، فيكون ما شاء الله أن تكون ، ثم يرفعها الله إذا شاء أن يرفعها ، ثم يكون ملكا جبريا ، فتكون ما شاء الله أن تكون ، ثم يرفعها إذا شاء أن يرفعها ، ثم تكون خلافة على منهاج النبوة ، ثم سكت

Based on Huzaifah, Allah’s Messenger  صلى الله عليه وسلم  said, “Prophecy will remain among you as long as Allah wishes it to remain, then Allah Most High will remove it. Then there will be a caliphate according to the manner of prophecy as long as Allah wishes it to remain, then Allah Most High will remove it. Then there will be a distressful kingdom which will remain as long as Allah wishes it to remain, then Allah Most High will remove it. Then there will be a proud kingdom which will remain as long as Allah wishes it to remain, then Allah Most High will remove it. Then there will be a caliphate according to the manner followed during the prophethood (by the prophet).” Then he stopped. Habib said: “When Umar ibn AbdulAziz became caliph I wrote to him, mentioning this tradition to him and saying, “I hope you will be the Prince of the Faithful Believers after the distressful and the proud kingdoms.” It pleased and charmed him, i.e. Umar ibn AbdulAziz.”  (Al-Tirmizi, Ahmad, Bayhaqi in Dala’il Nubuwwah)

Based on Abu Saeed Al Khudri, the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم   said, “Allah never sends a prophet or gives the Caliphate to a Caliph but that he (the prophet or the Caliph) has two groups of advisors: A group advising him to do good and exhorts him to do it, and the other group advising him to do evil and exhorts him to do it. But the protected person (against such evil advisors) is the one protected by Allah.” (Sahih Al-Bukhari)

Based on Abu Saeed al-Khudri, Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وسلم  said: “When oath of allegiance has been taken for two caliphs, kill the one for whom the oath was taken later.” (Sahih Muslim – Hadith 4568 )

Narrated by Abu Huraira: The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, “The Israelites used to be ruled and guided by prophets: Whenever a prophet died, another would take over his place. There will be no prophet after me, but there will be Caliphs who will increase in number.” The people asked, “O Allah’s Apostle! What do you order us (to do)?” He said, “Obey the one who will be given the pledge of allegiance first. Fulfil their (i.e. the Caliphs) rights, for Allah will ask them about (any shortcoming) in ruling those Allah has put under their guardianship.” (Sahih Al-Bukhari)

Jarir said: ” While I was at Yemen, I met two men from Yemen called Zhu Kala and Zhu Amr, and I started telling them about Allah’s Messenger. Zhu Amr said to me, “If what you are saying about your friend (i.e. the Prophet) is true, then he has died three days ago.” Then both of them accompanied me to Medina, and when we had covered some distance on the way to Medina, we saw some riders coming from Medina. We asked them and they said, “Allah’s Messenger has died and Abu Bakr has been appointed as the Caliph and the people are in a good state.’ Then they said, “Tell your friend (Abu Bakr) that we have come (to visit him), and if Allah will, we will come again.” So they both returned to Yemen. When I told Abu Bakr their statement, he said to me, “I wish you had brought them (to me).” Afterwards I met Zhu Amr, and he said to me, “O Jarir! You have done a favor to me and I am going to tell you something, i.e. you, the nation of ‘Arabs, will remain prosperous as long as you choose and appoint another chief whenever a former one is dead. But if authority is obtained by the power of the sword, then the rulers will become kings who will get angry, as kings get angry, and will be delighted as kings get delighted.” (Sahih Al-Bukhari )

Narrated by Jabir bin Samura: I heard the Prophet  صلى الله عليه وسلم saying, “There will be twelve Muslim rulers (who will rule all the Islamic world).” He then said a sentence which I did not hear. My father said, “All of them (those rulers) will be from Quraish.” (Sahih Al-Bukhari ) Abu Dawud in his Sunan also reported this Hadith, but added to it “and the whole community will agree on each of them.”

Narrated by Ibn Umar: Allah’s Apostle صلى الله عليه وسلم  said, “This matter (caliphate) will remain with Quraish even if only two of them were still existing.” (Sahih Al-Bukhari )

Narrated by Abu Huraira: Allah’s Messenger  صلى الله عليه وسلم said, “The kingship belongs to Quraish, the legal authority (belongs) to the Ansar, the call to prayer  (belongs) to the Abyssinians, and faithfulness (belongs) to Azd (Tribe in Yemen).” (Tirmizi)

Abdullah ibn Hawalah Al-Azdi said: “The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم placed his hand over my head and said:

“O Ibn Hawalah! When you see that the Khilafah (Caliphate) has settled (has its seat or capital) in the Holy Land (Palestine), then the earthquakes, tribulations and great events will have drawn near. The Hour, on that day, will be closer to the people than my hand is to your head.” (Abu Dawud)

 

Yunus ibn Maysurah Al-Jiblani said: “The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said:

“This matter will be in Al-Madina, then in AsSham, then in the Al-Jazirah, then in Iraq, then in Al-Madina, then in Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem). And when it comes to Bayt al-Maqdis, then it will be in its homeland. And it will never go away from a people and afterwards return to them.”  (Nuaim bin Hammad’s Kitab Al-Fitan)

 

فقد روى الإمام أحمد عن النعمان بن بشير رضي الله عنه الله، قال: كنا جلوساً في المسجد فجاء أبو ثعلبة الخشني فقال: يا بشير بن سعد أتحفظ حديث رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في الأمراء، فقال حذيفة: أنا أحفظ خطبته. فجلس أبو ثعلبة.
فقال حذيفة: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: تكون النبوة فيكم ما شاء الله أن تكون، ثم يرفعها الله إذا شاء أن يرفعها، ثم تكون خلافة على منهاج النبوة فتكون ما شاء الله أن تكون، ثم يرفعها الله إذا شاء أن يرفعها، ثم تكون ملكًا عاضًا فيكون ما شاء الله أن يكون، ثم يرفعها إذا شاء الله أن يرفعها، ثم تكون ملكًا جبرية فتكون ما شاء الله أن تكون، ثم يرفعها الله إذا شاء أن يرفعها، ثم تكون خلافة على منهاج النبوة، ثم سكت. قال حبيب: فلما قام عمر بن عبد العزيز، وكان يزيد بن النعمان بن بشير في صحابته، فكتبت إليه بهذا الحديث أذكره إياه. فقلت له: إني أرجو أن يكون أمير المؤمنين – يعني عمر – بعد الملك العاض والجبرية، فأدخل كتابي على عمر بن عبد العزيز فَسُرَّ به وأعجبه.
وروى الحديث أيضًا الطيالسي والبيهقي في منهاج النبوة، والطبري ، والحديث صححه الألباني في السلسلة الصحيحة، وحسنه الأرناؤوط

 

3. Description of the Mahdi (Mehdi) & his Lineage
Based on the Hadiths presented below, we can conclude that the Madhi (Mehdi) will be a descendant of Prophet Mohammad صلى الله عليه وسلم . This means the Mahdi  (Mehdi) is at least partly an Arab, but he does not have to be 100% Arab. Descendants of Prophet Mohammad صلى الله عليه وسلم exist throughout the Muslim World, not only in Arab countries.

 

1) He will be from the progeny of the Prophet and descendant of Fatima  رضي الله عنها . Umm Salama رضي الله عنها reported: I heard the Prophet of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم  saying, “The Mahdi will appear from Itrati (my family or progeny), from the descendants of Fatima.” (Abu Dawud, Ibn Maja, Al-Haakim, Al-Albany)

 

 

2) He could be a descendant of either Al-Hasan  or Al-Hussein  رضي الله عنهم   (sons of Fatima رضي الله عنها & Ali رضي الله عنه).

 

قال علي رضي الله عنه ونظر إلى ابنه الحسن فقال إن ابني هذا سيد كما سماه النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وسيخرج من صلبه رجل يسمى باسم نبيكم يشبهه في الخلق ولا يشبهه في الخلق ثم ذكر قصة يملأ الأرض عدلا

 

Abu Iss’haq (Isaac) narrated that Imam Ali رضي الله عنه , once looked at his son Al-Hasan رضي الله عنه and said ” This son of mine is a Sayyid (chief or master) as the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم named him (called him or gave him this title). From my reproductive organs (meaning from  progeny or descendants) will come a man by the name of your Prophet.  He will resemble him (the Prophet) in character, but not in looks (physical appearance).’ Then, he (Imam Ali) mentioned that he (the Mahdi) will fill the Earth with justice.” (Abu Dawud)

 

 

:  عن حذيفه , أن النبي (ص) قال

لو لم يبق من الدنيا إلا يوم واحد لطوّل الله عز وجل ذلك اليوم حتى يبعث رجلاً من ولدي اسمه اسمي، فقام سلمان الفارسي فقال: يا رسول الله، من أي ولدك؟ قال من ولدي هذا، وضرب بيده على الحسين

ينابيع المودة لنعيم بن حماد : ص 490  ،  المعجم الكبير للطبراني: ج 10 ص 166،   الصواعق المحرقة على أهل الرفض والضلال والزندقة لإبن حجر الهيتمي: ص 249
Huzaifa narrated that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم  said:  

” If there is not left in this World except one day, Allah will lengthen it until He (Allah) sends a man from my children (or descendants), his name is (like) mine.” So, Salman Al-Farsi stood up and said: O Messenger of Allah: From which of your children (or descendants)?  He said: ” From my Child, this one and he tapped with his hand on Al-Hussein .”  (Nuaim bin Hammad‘s Yanabi Al-Mawadda , page 490;  Tabarani’s Al-Mujam Al-Kabir, Vol. 10, page 166  ;  Ibn Hajar Al-Haitami’s Al-Sawaiq Al-Muhriqa ala Ahl Al-Rafd wa Al-Dhalal wa Al-Zandaqa, page 249  )

 

3)

  حدثنا ‏ ‏أبو بكر بن أبي شيبة ‏ ‏حدثنا ‏ ‏يونس بن محمد ‏ ‏حدثنا ‏ ‏القاسم بن الفضل الحداني ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏محمد بن زياد ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏عبد الله بن الزبير ‏ ‏أن ‏ ‏عائشة ‏ ‏قالت ‏
‏عبث ‏ ‏رسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏في منامه فقلنا يا رسول الله صنعت شيئا في منامك لم تكن تفعله فقال ‏ ‏العجب إن ناسا من أمتي ‏ ‏يؤمون ‏ ‏بالبيت ‏ ‏برجل من ‏ ‏قريش ‏ ‏قد لجأ ‏ ‏بالبيت ‏ ‏حتى إذا كانوا ‏ ‏بالبيداء ‏ ‏خسف بهم فقلنا يا رسول الله إن الطريق قد يجمع الناس قال نعم فيهم المستبصر والمجبور وابن السبيل يهلكون مهلكا واحدا ‏ ‏ويصدرون ‏ ‏مصادر شتى يبعثهم الله على نياتهم

Aisha (r.a.) said that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم  said: “It worth wondering ! There are people from my Ummah who will head toward  House (Mecca’s House of Worship) seeking (with evil intention) a man from Quraish (tribe) who has taken refuge in the House. Once they arrive at Bayda, a Khusuf (landslide) will occur to them…”   (Sahih Muslim)  

 

4)

           أخرج ( ك ) أيضا (1115) عن كعب قال: ما المهدي إلا من قريش, وما الخلافة إلا فيهم,[ غير أن له أصلا ونسبا في اليمن[

 

Ka’b said: ” The Mahdi will not be (from any tribe) other than from Quraish. The Caliphate is not (from any tribe) other than from Quraish. However, he has an origin (roots) and kinship in Yemen.” ( Nuaim bin Hammad’s Kitab Al-Fitan, Jalal-uddine AsSuyuti’s  Al-Urf Al-Wardi fi Akhbar Al-Mahdi, a part of Al-Hawi li Al-Fatawa)

 

5) His name will be Muhammad and his father’s name will be Abdullah. Ibn Masood reported that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, “Even if there remains only a day before the World ends, the almighty Allah will greatly prolong that day to send a man from me (my progeny), from members of my House (family). His name will be similar to my name and his father’s name similar to my father’s name.” (Abu Dawud)
6) Abu Saeed Al-Khudri reported that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said “The Mahdi is from me (my progeny) and will have a broad, clear (of hair) forehead and a prominent nose and will fill the Earth with fairness and justice as it was filled with oppression and injustice, and will reign for seven years.” (Abu Dawud).

 

7) Once Imam Ali رضي الله عنه was asked to describe the Mahdi’s. He replied, “He is a well-built, youthful, with average height and a handsome face. His hair reaches his shoulders, and the light of his face is contrasted by the darkness of his hair and beard.”  (Muhammad Al-Barzanji’sbook Isha’ah li Ashrat Al-Sa’a)

 

The following Hadiths provide more physical description of the Mahdi  (Mehdi). However, these Hadiths are weak. They mention that Mahdi’s body resembles the bodies of the Israelites. This connection of the Mahdi to the Israelites should be regarded with great caution because it could be a false rumour propagated by the Shia who believe the Mahdi will follow the Jewish Laws and pray in Hebrew:

1) Abu Umamah says that  Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “The people asked: ‘O Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم , who will be the Imam of the people at the time? ‘  He said: ‘He will be from my progeny and will be forty years of age. His face will shine like a star and he will have a small black spot on his right cheek. He will don two Qutwaani cloaks as if he is from the Israelites. He will rule for 20 years and will conquer the cities of the Mushrikeen (Polytheists). (Tabrani)

2) The Mahdi will have wheatish complexion, long straight nose, eyes brows round like bow, big black eyes, very white front two teeth and with a spacing between the teeth ,a small black spot on the right cheek, face glowing like a shining star, a mark on his shoulder like that of Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم , complexion like the Arabs and body like the Israelites. He will be slow in speech (with a slight stutter) and when he stutters, he will strike his left thigh with his right hand. He will appear at the age of 40. While praying to Allah, he will expand his hands for prayers like birds expanding their wings. He will be wearing Qutwani Cloaks. He will resemble in character Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم  , but in appearance (or looks), he will be different.  (Muhammad Al-Barzanji’s book Isha’ah li Ashrat Al-Sa’a)
 

4. The Mahdi’s Place of Birth

Nuaim bin Hammad narrates based on Ali bin Abi Talib (r.a.) that the Mahdi (Mehdi) will be born in Medina. However, Al-Qurtubi in his book Al-Tazirah said that the Mahdi will be born in the Maghreb (Morocco, Algeria, Tunis region). Others said in Al-Andalus.

 

قال رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم ( المهدي يخرج من قرية تسمي قرعه باليمن ) السيوطي وأخرج أبو نعيم (7), وأبو بكر المقرئ في ((معجمه))(94) عن ابن عمرو قال: قال النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم : (( يخرج المهدي من قرية يقال لها قرعة )) نبوءة اشعياء النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام (يقول الرب أقيموا راية علي جبل أقرع ) سفر اشعياء الإصحاح 13

 

5. Signs & Events Preceding the Mahdi (Mehdi)

To read about the signs & events that will occur before the Mahdi appears, please click here   (These signs & events  are very important. We strongly urge you to read them !)

 

 

6. The Rise of the Mahdi (Mehdi)

Abdullah-bin-Masood has reported that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, “The World will not pass away before the Arabs are ruled by a man (referring to the Mahdi) of my family whose name will be the same as mine.” (Abu Dawud)
Umm Salamah رضي الله عنها narrated: The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “Disagreement will occur upon the death of a Caliph and a man of the people of Medina will flee to Mecca. Some of the people of Mecca will come to him, bring him out against his will and make him accept their Bay’a (being chosen as a leader) (at a location) between the Rukn (corner of the Ka’ba containing the Black Stone)  and the Maqam (Place) of Abraham (located on a side of the Ka’ba). An army from the people of AshSham (Greater Syria) will then be sent against him, but Khusf (land collapse) will happen to them (they will die) in the Baidaa (desert) between Mecca and Medina. When the people see this, the Abdal (pious eminent individuals) of Syria and the Asa’ib (pious individuals) of the people of Iraq will come to him and offer him Bay’a (accept his leadership) between the Rukn and the Maqam. A man from  Quraish tribe , whose maternal uncles are from Kalb tribe, will arise and send against them (against the Mahdi & his supporters) an army which they (the Mahdi & his supporters) will overcome. That army will be made up of Kalb tribe. Whoever does not witness the spoils of (this battle with) Kalb tribe will be disappointed (because treasures will be found, according to some narration). He (the Mahdi) will divide (distribute) money (wealth), and will govern the people according to the Sunnah of their Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and establish Islam on Earth. He will remain seven years, then die, and the Muslims will pray over him.” (Abu Dawud) Al-Bazar reported a variation of this Hadith attributed to Anas bin Malik who says that the Prophet mentioned that the army which experience the Khusuf comes from Iraq, not AshSham.

 

Abu Huraira has narrated that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, ‘‘A man will emerge from the depth of  Damascus. He will be called Sufyani. Most of those who follow him will be from the tribe of Kalb (or Kulaib). He will kill by ripping the stomachs of women and even kill children. Qais tribe will gather against them, but Sufyani & his followers will them. A man from my family will appear in Haram (in Mecca), the news of this event will reach the Sufyani and he will send forth one of his armies. He (the Mahdi) will defeat them. Then, the Sufyani will march (to attack the Mahdi) with whoever remains with him. When they reach a Baidaa (desert), a Khusf (land collapse) will happen to them. None of them (Sufyani’s army) will survive, except one person who will tell about what happened.” (Imam Al-Haakim)

 

The Sufyani (a descendant of Abu Sufyan) will emerge from Damascus before the Mahdi. According to some weak narration, the Sufyani’s name will be Urwa bin Muhammad and his Kuniya (nick name) will be Abu-Utba. The Hadiths regarding the Suffyani specify that he is a tyrant who will spread corruption and mischief on Earth.

 

Please note that Umm Salama’s Hadith mentions two different armies sent to attack the Mahdi. Whereas Abu Huraira’s Hadith mentions only one army.

Many Muslim scholars from various countries will set out to seek the Mahdi (a.s.), unknown to one another, and up to 310 people will accompany each scholar. Eventually, they will all meet up in Mecca. And when they ask one another “why did they come?”, they will all answer: “We are looking for the Mahdi (a.s.), who will end this Fitna (strife) and conquer Constantinople, because we have learned his name and those of his father, mother and army.” (The Book of Signs of the Mahdi of the End Times, p. 15-75)

 

أخرج ( ك ) الداني (596) عن حذيفة  قال: قال رسول الله  صلى الله عليه وسلم:

  (( تكون وقعة بالزوراء, قالوا يا رسول الله وما الزوراء؟ قال: مدينة بالمشرق بين أنهار يسكنها شرار خلق الله, وجبابرة من أمتي, تقذف بأربعة أصناف من العذاب, بالسيف وخسف وقذف ومسخ ))

   وقال صلى الله عليه وسلم : (( إذا خرجت السودان طلبت العرب ينكشفون, حتى يلحقوا ببطن الأرض أو قال: ببطن الأردن  فبينما هم كذلك , إذ خرج السفياني في ستين وثلاثمائة راكب , حتى يأتي دمشق, فلا يأتي عليه شهر حتى يبايعه من كلب ثلاثون ألفا, فيبعث جيشا إلى العراق , فيقتل بالزوراء مائة ألف , وينحدرون إلى الكوفة فينهبونها , فعند ذلك تخرج [ دابة ]  من المشرق , يقودها رجل من بني تميم , يقال له:شعيب بن صالح , فيستنقذ ما في أيديهم من سبي أهل الكوفة, ويقتلهم, ويخرج جيش آخر من جيوش السفياني إلى المدينة, فينهبونها [ ثلاثة أيام, ثم يسيرون إلى مكة, حتى إذا كانوا بالبيداء  بعث الله عز وجل جبريل  فيقول: يا جبريل عذبهم , فيضربهم برجله ضربة , فيخسف الله عز وجل بهم فلا يبقى منهم إلا رجلان, فيقدمان على السفياني فيخبرانه خسف الجيش فلا يهوله , ثم إن رجالا من قريش يهربون إلى قسطنطينية , فيبعث السفياني إلى عظيم الروم, أن ابعث إلى بهم في المجامع, قال: فيبعث بهم إليه فيضرب أعناقهم على باب المدينة بدمشق.

  قال حذيفة  :حتى إنه يطاف بالمرأة في مسجد دمشق في الثوب على مجلس مجلس, حتى تأتي فخذ السفياني فتجلس عليه, وهو في المحراب قاعد, فيقوم رجل من المسلمين فيقول: ويحكم أكفرتم بالله بعد إيمانكم ؟, إن هذا لا يحل, فيقوم فيضرب عنقه في مسجد دمشق, ويقتل كل من شايعه على ذلك, فعند ذلك ينادى من السماء:مناد أيها الناس إن الله عز وجل قد قطع عنكم مدة الجبارين والمنافقين وأشياعهم وأتباعهم, وولاكم خير أمة محمد  فالحقوا به بمكة فإنه المهدي, واسمه أحمد بن عبدالله. 

  قال حذيفة : فقام عمران بن الحصين الخزاعي فقال:يا رسول الله كيف لنا بهذا حتى نعرفه؟ فقال:هو رجل من ولد كنانة من رجال بني إسرائيل,عليه عباءتان قطوانيتان, كأن وجهه الكوكب الدري في اللون, في خده الأيمن خال أسود, [ بين ]  أربعين سنة, فيخرج الأبدال من الشام وأشباهـهم, ويخرج إليه النجباء من مصر وعصائب أهل المشرق وأشباهـهم,حتى يأتوا مكة , فيبايع له بين زمزم  والمقام, ثم  يخرج متوجها إلي الشام, وجبريل على مقدمته, وميكائيل على ساقته, يفرح به أهل السماء و أهل الأرض, والطير والوحوش والحيتان في البحر, وتزيد المياهـ في دولته, وتمد الأنهار, وتضعف الأرض أكلها, وتستخرج الكنوز, فيقدم الشام, فيذبح السفياني تحت الشجرة التي أغصانها إلى بحيرة طبرية, ويقتل كلبا.

  قال حذيفة  قال رسول الله  صلى الله عليه وسلم: فالخائب من خاب يوم كلب, ولو بعقال.

 قال حذيفة  : يا رسول الله وكيف يحل قتالهم وهم موحدون؟ فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : يا حذيفة هم يومئذ على ردة, يزعمون أن الخمر حلال, ولا يصلون , [ ويسير المهدي حتى يأتي دمشق, ومن معه من المسلمين, فيبعث الله عز و وجل عليهم الروم , وهو الخامس من آل هرقل , يقال له: طبارة, وهو صاحب الملاحم , فتصالحونهم  سبع سنين , حتى تغزوا أنتم وهم عدوا خلفهم , وتغنمون وتسلمون أنتم وهم جميعا  فتنزلون بمرج ذي تلول ], .[ فإذا كان يوم الجمعة من صلاة الغداة وقد أقيمت الصلاة فالتفت المهدي فإذا هو بعيسى بن مريم قد نزل من السماء, في ثوبين كأنما يقطر من رأسه الماء, فقال أبوهريرة إذا أقوم إليه يا رسول الله فأعانقه؟ فقال يا أبا هريرة  إن خرجته هذه ليست كخرجته الأولى,تلقى عليه مهابة كمهابة الموت,يبشر أقواما بدرجات من الجنة,فيقول له الإمام: تقدم فصل بالناس, فيقول له عيسى : إنما أقيمت الصلاة لك, فيصلى عيسى خلفه. قال حذيفة  وقال رسول الله  : قد أفلحت أمة أنا أولها , و عيسى آخرها … الحديث ] ))

Huzaifa said that theMessenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلمsaid :

“When Sudan (either refers to Sudan as a country, or blacks, such as the Abyssinians, meaning Ethiopians) come after the Arabs, they will be defeated and thrown into the lowest part of the Earth (or pushed back to Jordan). While these circumstances exist, the Sufyani will come with three hundred and sixty men until he reaches Damascus. After a month, he will be followed by thirty thousand from Kalb (tribe). He will send an army to Iraq and kill one hundred thousand in Az-Zawra (possibly refers to Baghdad).

Then, they (Sufyani’s army) will go to Kufa (a Shia city in Iraq) and pillage it. When this occurs, a banner will come from the East led by a man from Tamim called Shuayb, the son of Salih, who will obtain the release of the people of Kufa (captured by Sufyani’s army) and (Salih & his men) will defeat them (Sufyani’s army).

Then, another army of the Sufyani will go to Medina and pillage it for three days and thereafter proceed towards Mecca until these troops find themselves in a desert.

Then, Allah will send (Angel) Gabriel and say to him, ‘Chastise them!’ So, he (Gabriel) will crush them with his leg once and Allah will cause them to be swallowed up (by the earth). None will remain except two men who will return to The Sufyani to inform him of the swallowing-up of his army, but this will not scare him.

Several men from Quraish (tribe) will escape to Constantinople (Istanbul, New York, or European city). The Sufyani will ask the leader of the Romans to send them back to the Sufyani. The Sufyani will slit their throats and the throats of their followers.

At that point, a voice will come from Heaven saying: ‘ O’ people, surely Allah forbids tyrants and their followers for you and (Allah) bestows leadership upon the best of the nation of Muhammad. Join him in Mecca — he is the Mahdi!’ ”

Then, Huzaifa asked: “O Messenger of Allah, how shall we identify him (the Mahdi)?”

He  صلى الله عليه وسلم replied: “He is a man from my descendants, he looks like the men of the Israelites, upon him are two white cloaks with frayed edges,Qutwani’ cloaks. His face is like a glittering star, upon his right cheek there is a black mole and he is forty years old.

Al-Abdal (pious individuals) and those seeking the Mahdi like them will come to him (the Mahdi) from Syria. Al-Nujaba (pious individuals) from the dwellers of  Egypt will come to him (the Mahdi). Groups of dwellers from the East and those seeking the Mahdi like them will come until they all gather together in Mecca. So, they will pledge their allegiance to him (the Mahdi) between Al-Rukn (corner of the Ka’ba containing the Black Stone) and Al-Maqam (Place) of (Prophet) Abraham عليه السلام (located on a side of the Ka’ba).

Then, he (the Mahdi) will lead (an army) towards Syria, with (angel) Gabriel at the fore front and (angel) Michael in the middle. The dwellers of Heaven and Earth will be joyful because of him. Water will be plentiful in his country (Syria) and the River (Euphrates) will spread and treasures will be found ( gold or treasures of religioussignificance ) .

When he (the Mahdi) reaches Syria, he will slay the Sufyani under a tree, the branches of which grow in the direction of Lake Tiberias and he will defeat Kalb (tribe).  On that Day (battle) of Kalb, disappointed will be whoever does not get some (of the treasures).”

Huzaifa asked: “O Messenger of Allah, صلى الله عليه وسلم , how is it permitted to kill them when they believe in the Oneness (of God)?”

The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم  replied: “O Huzaifa, they are at that time apostates, they claim that wine is permitted and do not pray.” (Nuaim Ibn Hammad’s Kitab Al-Fitan, Tabarani, and Abu Amru Uthman bin Saeed Ad-Dani‘s Kitab Al-Sunan Al-Waredah fi al-Fitan )

غير الدجال أخوفني عليكم إن يخرج وأنا فيكم فأنا حجيجه دونكم وإن يخرج ولست فيكم فامرؤ حجيج نفسه والله خليفتي على كل مسلم

 

 

7. The Pillaging of Madina in Saudi Arabia

Mu’az ibn Jabal narrated that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said to him: “Omran (re-building) of Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem) will be (lead to) Halak (the pillaging and devastation) of Yathrib (Madina in Saudi Arabia). The pillaging of Yathrib will be (lead to) the outbreak of the Big Battle (with the Romans). The outbreak of the Big Battle will be (lead to) the conquest of Constantinople. The conquest of Constantinople will be (lead to) the coming of Dajjal (Anti-Christ). Then, … said: This is as true as you (Mu’az ibn Jabal) are here or you are sitting.”  (Abu Dawud)  

The Omran (re-building) of Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem) refers to the capture of Jerusalem by Israel.

Based on our numerical analysis of Quran and Hadith, we believe the Halak (the pillaging and devastation) of Yathrib (Medina) could have been meant by Prophet Mohammad as coded message referring to the devastation of a city of the enemies of Muslims.

 

 

8. Roman (European) Invasions & the Conquest of Constantinople & Rome

 

For detailed information about Roman (European) Invasions & the Conquest of Constantinople & Rome click here

 

 

 

9. Other Events around the Time of the Mahdi

 

This includes:(a)internal fighting & bloodshed in the Muslim World, (b) Fighting Iran, (c) invasions by the Turks (Russians), (d) fighting the Andalusians, and Abyssinians (Ethiopians & East Africans),(c) Muslims’ conquest of India, etc. For detailed information about, click  here Other Events around the time of the Mahdi(s)

 

 

10. Discoveries of Religious Significance

Some scholars, particularly the Shia, believe the Mahdi (Mehdi) will be able to find Religious relics, such as Ark of the Covenant (containing the Tablets of Stone on which the Ten Commandments were inscribed)  in Antioch (very important city in Early Christianity, currently located in Turkey, but, historically, was part of Syria), Lake Tiberias (Sea of Galilee in Palestine), orin  Rome / Vatican. For more details about Discoveries of Religious Significance, click here.

 

 

11. Ahl Al-Kahf (People of the Cave)

 

The story of these people is mentioned in the Quran in Sura Al-Kahf.

 

Ibn Marduwayh narrates from Ibn Abbas: “Ahl Al-Kahf (People of the Cave) will be the Mahdi’s helpers (companions).” (Muhammad Al-Barzanji’s book  Isha’ah li Ashrat Al-Sa’a)

 

وقال محمد بن كعب القرظي : في الكتب المنزلة ، أن أصحاب الكهف يكونون في حواريه ، وأنهم يحجون معه ، ذكره القرطبي في الملاحم ، في آخر كتاب ” التذكرة

 

“People of the Cave will be companions of Jesus and they will perform Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca) with him.” (Mohammad bin Ka’b Al-Qarzi’s book Al-Kutub Al-Munazala, and Al-Qurtubi’s book Al-Tazkira- Malahim Chapter)

 

 

 

The Shia, particularly, believe that People of the Cave will return and play an important role.

 

For more information about People of the Cave, click here

 

 

 

12. Blessings at the time of the Mahdi (Mehdi)

Once again, the Quran and Sunnah will govern the people, this time by the rightly guided Caliph, the Mahdi (Mehdi). Islam will gain an upper hand and will be firmly established in the land. The oppression, tyranny, and darkness that prevailed all over the Globe will be replaced with justice, peace and equity.

Due to the booty gained from the various conquests, everyone will have so much wealth that an eyebrow will not even be raised at somebody else’s wealth. Callers will shout in the street, ”Is anybody in need of anything?” Nobody will respond except one person. Abu Saeed Al-Khudri’s Hadith narrated that Prophet Mohammad صلى الله عليه وسلمsaid: ”A caller will call ‘Who is in need of wealth?’ Only one person will stand (in response to the call and say I am in need of wealth), he will be told to go to the treasurer and tell him that the Mahdi orders you to give some wealth.  He will be told: ‘Gather and take it.’ (He will begin to put it in his lap, when he realized that nobody else has come and he was the only one) he will regret it and say ‘I was the greediest from among the Ummah (Nation) of Muhammad’ . The narrator says, he will return it, but it will not be accepted, and it will be said to him that we do not accept what we have given.” (Musnad Ahmad)

Abu Saeed al-Khudri  said I heard that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم say: ” A leader will emerge from your leaders. He will distribute more than can ever be counted. A man will come and ask for goods, and he (the leader) will tell him to take what he wants. That man will spread out his shirt and fill it with goods. The Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وسلم spread out a thick shirt he was wearing, showing how that man will be at that time, and then gathered up the corners of that garment and said, this is how that man will collect his goods and carry them away.” (Ibn Kathir’s book Nihaya fi Fitan & Al-Malahim)

 

عن أبي سعيد الخدري رضي الله عنه قال : قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم
يخرج في آخر أمتي المهدي يسيقه الله الغيث وتخرج الأرض نباتها ويعطي المال صحاحاً وتكثر الماشية وتعظم الأمة يعيش سبعاً أو ثمانياً يعني حججاً)) رواه الحاكم في المستدرك وقال صحيح، وقال الالباني حديث صحيح

Abu Saeed al-Khudri said: the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said:  ” At the end of Umma, the Mahdi will appear. Allah will give him water as a relief. Land sprouts plants. He give away money. The cattle will increase in number. The Umma (nation) will become magnificent. He will live for 7 or 8, meaning Hajj seasons (years).” (Al-Hakim’s Al-Mustadrak, Al-Albany classified it as Sahih)

 

 

 

13. His Reign as a Caliph

There are different conflicting narrations regarding the length of the period of the Mahdi’s reign as a Caliph.

 

Umm Salama narrated the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم  said: ”… He will remain seven years, then die, and Muslims will pray for him (at his funeral).” (Abu Dawud)

Abu Saeed Al-Khudri reported that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said “The Mahdi is from me (my progeny) and will have a broad, clear (of hair) forehead and a prominent nose and will fill the Earth with fairness and justice as it was filled with oppression and injustice, and will reign for seven years.” (Abu Dawud)Al-Munawi added to this Hadith “or nine years”.

Abu Saeed Al-Khudri narrated: “We were afraid that things might happen, so we asked the Prophet of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم  , … ‘In my Ummah (Nation), there will be the Mahdi; he will appear and remain five, seven or nine. Zayd was one who was not sure. He said, ‘ We asked, ‘What does that refer to?’ He (Prophet Mohammad  صلى الله عليه وسلم ) replied, ‘Years’.” (Tirmizi)

 

There are Hadiths that indicate that when the Mahdi dies, Prophet Jesus will lead his funeral prayer and bury him.

 

The Shia believe, according to some sayings they attribute to their Imams, that the Mahdi will rule for seven years, but each year will be equivalent to 10 regular years. This means he will rule for what is equivalent to seventy years. However, some Shia believe the Mahdi may rule more than 300 years.

 

 

14. The Mahdi has been prophesied in the Bible

(a) The Bible prophesies the coming of Shiloh. This Shiloh who could be either Prophet Mohammad (p) or the Mahdi:

The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be.  (Genesis 49:10)

في التوراة العربية المطبوعة في مجموعة باريس (طبعت سنة 1645م) ومجموعة لندن (طبعت سنة 1657م

لا يزول القضيب من يهوذا والرسم من تحت أمره ، إلى أن يجئ الذي هو لـه ، وإليه تجتمع الشعوب

ترجمة عربية للعهد القديم  طبعت سنة 1753 م في مطبعة (ملاك روتيلي) ، وردت الآية العاشرة و في الصفحة 66-67 و جاءت كما يلي

لا يزول القضيب من يهوذا ولا القائد من فخذه ، حتى يأتي الْمُزمَع أن يرسل ، وهو يكون انتظار الأمم

(b)  The Bible, in Daniel 10 and in Daniel 12, prophesies the advent of the Mahdi, referring to him as Michael :

In Daniel 10: 20-21:

20 So he said, “Do you know why I have come to you? Soon I will return to fight against the prince of Persia, and when I go, the prince of Greece will come;

21 but first I will tell you what is written in the Book of Truth. No one supports me against them except Michael, your prince.   (Daniel 10: 20-21)

 

In Daniel 12: 1-11:

 1 “At that time, Michael, the great prince who protects your people, will arise. There will be a time of distress such as has not happened from the beginning of nations until then. But at that time, your people—everyone whose name is found written in the book—will be delivered.

2 Multitudes who sleep in the dust of the earth will awake: some to everlasting life, others to shame and everlasting contempt.

3 Those who are wise  will shine like the brightness of the heavens, and those who lead many to righteousness, like the stars for ever and ever.

4 But you, Daniel, close up and seal the words of the scroll until the time of the end. Many will go here and there to increase knowledge.”

 5 Then I, Daniel, looked, and there before me stood two others, one on this bank of the river and one on the opposite bank.

6 One of them said to the man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, “How long will it be before these astonishing things are fulfilled?”

 7 The man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, lifted his right hand and his left hand toward heaven, and I heard him swear by him who lives forever, saying, “It will be for a time, times and half a time (a year, two years and half a year).  When the power of the holy people has been finally broken, all these things will be completed.”

 8 I heard, but I did not understand. So I asked, “My lord, what will the outcome of all this be?”

 9 He replied, “Go your way, Daniel, because the words are closed up and sealed until the time of the end.

10 Many will be purified, made spotless and refined, but the wicked will continue to be wicked. None of the wicked will understand, but those who are wise will understand.

 11 “From the time that the daily sacrifice is abolished and the abomination that causes desolation is set up, there will be 1,290 days.

12 Blessed is the one who waits for and reaches the end of the 1,335 days.  (Daniel 12: 1-11)

 

 

Furthermore, the following prophecy in Isaiah 19: 16-25 of the Bible seems to correspond very well with the signs preceding the advent of the Mahdi:

 

(a) Verse 17 talks about Israel attacking Egypt. This could be either a reference to Israel’s attack on Egypt in 1967 or an attack that will happen in the future.

(b) Verse 18 mentions that Egyptians will be speaking  language of Canaan which indicates that they will speaking a new language that ancient Egyptian did not speak. Canaan is the region that includes Lebanon and Palestine, where people speak Arabic, and previously Aramaic used to be spoken there which is also a Semitic language, very similar to Arabic. So, we sense that this prophecy is talking about events at the end of time.

(c) Heliopolis mentioned in verse 18 is a suburb of today’s Cairo.

(d) Verse 19 mentions a sign and a pillar which could be the sign and column of fire or light we discussed in the Signs Preceding the Mahdi.

(e) Verse 20 talks about God sending the Egyptians a saviour from oppression. This saviour could be the Mahdi.

(f) Verse 23 says that there will be a highway from Egypt to Assyria. Assyria includes Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, Iraq, and Northern Saudi Arabia. This highway could be the proposed bridge Sharm el-Sheikh in Egypt to Ras Hamid in Northern Saudi Arabia  is one of signs, mentioned in Shia books, for the advent of the Mahdi.

 

 

(c)  Isaiah 19: 16-25 :

16In that day shall Egypt be like unto women: and it shall be afraid and fear because of the shaking of the hand of the LORD of hosts, which he shaketh over it.

 17And the land of Judah (meaning Israel) will bring terror to the Egyptians; everyone to whom Judah is mentioned will be terrified, because of what the LORD Almighty is planning against them.

 18In that day shall five cities in the land of Egypt speak the language of Canaan, and swear to the LORD of hosts; one shall be called, the City of Destruction (some manuscripts of the Bible mention Heliopolisor City of the Sun).

 19In that day shall there be an altar to the LORD in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar at the border thereof to the LORD.

 20And it shall be for a sign and for a witness unto the LORD Almighty in the land of Egypt: for they shall cry unto the LORD because of the oppressors, and he shall send them a Saviour, and a great one, and he shall deliver them.

 21And the LORD shall be known to Egypt, and the Egyptians shall know the LORD in that day, and shall do sacrifice and oblation; yea, they shall vow a vow unto the LORD, and perform it.

 22And the LORD shall smite Egypt: he shall smite and heal it: and they shall return even to the LORD, and he shall respond to their pleas and heal them.

 23In that day shall there be a highway out of Egypt to Assyria, and the Assyrian shall come into Egypt, and the Egyptian into Assyria, and the Egyptians shall serve with the Assyrians.

 24In that day shall Israel be the third with Egypt and with Assyria, even a blessing in the midst of the land:

 25Whom the LORD of hosts shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my hands, and Israel mine inheritance.

 

 

 

 

 

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The right to change one’s religion by Shaykh Abdallah Adhami 23 October 2007


New York, New York – From the Code of Hammurabi to the Code of Maimonides, most major systems of law have affirmed that apostasy must be punished.

In the renowned code of the Roman emperor Justinian (483-565 CE), corpus juris civilis — the basis of all Roman canon law and of modern civil law — apostasy was “to be punished by death” and there was “no toleration of dissent”.

The Biblical codes stipulate that the “one who doubts or ridicules one word of the Torah — or of the rabbinical authors — is a ‘heretic’ in the fullest sense, an infidel … and there is no hope for him.” The laws concerning such an unbeliever are very strict: “he may be killed directly”. Or as Maimonides, the 13th century Andalucian rabbi and philosopher, advised regarding the abeyance of apostasy law in his era, “his death may be caused indirectly.”

Islamic law, (shari’a), likewise stipulated killing in cases of established public apostasy. Though there is little literature on the emergence and application of apostasy law in the early periods of Muslim history, its actual application usually depended upon whether its declaration was public or private. Within the Islamic state, what minorities — religious and otherwise — did in their private lives was left to their own discretion, even if it may have been technically termed “deviant” or against Islamic teaching.

Shari’a, like all religious law, governs rites of worship and codes of individual and communal conduct and ethics. Contrary to stereotypical notions of religion, the earthly realm within shari’a is in fact pragmatically understood to be essentially secular.

From the point of view of religion, the fundamental nature of the human being is to yearn to worship God unencumbered. The private realm of apostasy had thus always reflected more complex dimensions that make ultimate human judgment impossible. The mysteries of the heart and mind are as beyond theology as they are barely fathomable to neuroscience.

It is our creative encounter with earthly, secular life that reveals our capacity for usefulness to others, and it is the premier instrument by which our own spiritual station is elevated. Authentic, sincere worship ultimately becomes the daily barometer of our spiritual state.

Free, rational debate had always been accommodated within the religious context of shari’a. This was a uniquely Islamic phenomenon, as true in European Cordoba as it was in Arabian Baghdad. Neither the theological abstraction of the Mu’tazilites, a 9th century group of philosophers, nor the unmitigated foreign dialectics by the secretive 10th century group, Brethren of Purity, for example, was ever grounds for removing one from the fold of Islam.

The most salient evidence for not punishing “private” apostasy in Islam is the perennial existence of the so-called hypocrites amidst Medinan society despite grave Qur’anic passages against them. Moreover, private “heretical” thought was neither censured nor censored; as long is it was not publicly preached, it was not condemned as such, nor were there articulations of a need to suppress it.

Outward or visible stability in the earthly domain is what allows the institutions of civil society to continue.

The non-violent resistance of the Prophet Muhammad in Mecca and his diplomacy during the Treaty of Hudaybiyah taught his companions a similar lesson. Under this Treaty, the Prophet allowed people to emigrate without any reprisal, despite the fact that they were abandoning Islam in the process (some having only adopted the new religion for reasons of self-interest).

No prophet was ever given the license to pass judgment over the faith of a human being — as the Qur’an repeatedly reiterates, judgment is ultimately with God alone. Hence, constructive service of our sacred traditions lies in showing their relevance as a vehicle of infinite creativity, not in demoting them to preoccupation with judgment of contemporary culture.

We need to acknowledge and affirm that diversity and difference are part of the divine intent for creation — that we were made as nations and tribes so that we may “learn about and be enriched by the ways of each other” (Qur’an, 49:13). Provincialism and relativism will always challenge diversity — especially when the latter is disguised as tolerance; and not because people are inherently incapable of living together, either.

We need a renewed devotion to the truth, and to seeking it freely through our established non-sectarian, scholarly institutions. Thomas Jefferson exhorted: “Truth is … the proper and sufficient antagonist to error.” It is only through respectful free argument and debate that ideologies can be judged and challenged on their own merits.

The reformation that is direly needed — across the entire globe — is the honest reassessment of the original sources of all our oppressive cultural myths and tyrannical modes of thinking.

As Muslims, we need to establish a higher barometer for what constitutes competence in the service of the scholarly disciplines of shari’a. This would equip us with greater clarity and confidence and prevent us from thoughtlessly demonstrating in passionate protest every time a passing wind seems to challenge our faith.

As religious leaders of all faiths, we need to acknowledge our responsibility for much alienation and estrangement among the faithful around the world. This would begin to re-establish the credibility of our institutions, which would eventually re-ignite the religious imagination of the masses.

Lastly, we need a renewed commitment to focus on an ethos of compassionate, selfless service as a public trust; and this is certainly more becoming of the example of the Blessed Messengers that we claim loyalty to.

* Shaykh Abdallah Adhami is an Arab-American imam and a leading scholar of Islam. He is currently working on an exploration of the linguistic implications of apparently problematic verses in the Qur’an. This article is distributed by the Common Ground News Service (CGNews) and can be accessed at http://www.commongroundnews.org.

Disbelief/Kufr


“Allah is not satisfied with disbelief for his servants.” (Sura Az-Zumar 39:7)

“Surely, Allah does not forgive that a partner is ascribed to Him, and He forgives anything short of that for whomsoever He wills. Whoever ascribes a partner to Allah commits a terrible sin.” (Sura the women 4.48)

We need to know about disbelief to protect ourselves from it and not to accuse others of it.
In the Arabic language Kufr means to cover up or hide. A farmer is known as a kafir because he covers seeds in the ground.

In the sacred law kufr/disbelief is to deny anything that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) brought, with the condition that it is definite and two to deny or refuse something that is definite

This is either something well known about the religion to the Ashari’s or something that is just definite to the Maturidi’s.

Others say it is to deny something that is well-known by Islam, for example to deny fasting during Ramadan

Something definite is something that is in the Quran or widely transmitted hadith.

The Ashari’s and the Maturidi’s are two groups of Sunni theological belief and the main groups of this time

There is major and minor disbelief:

Major is disbelief as described above

Minor is when someone is an ingrate about blessings

The conditions for disbelief/kufr are:

1. Sanity: a person has to be sane, an insane persons is not taken to task

2. Awake: if they say it in their sleep, it does not count

3. Forced: if someone is forced then it does not count

The definition of faith/Imam is acceptance of the heart with affirmation on the tongue
With the conditions:

1. Not to do an action of disbelief.

2. And not to jest about it. (jest about religious matters)

The levels of disbelief/kufr are:
1. Kufr Inkari/ Denial disbelief: denies belief
2. Kufr ‘Inadi/ beliefs inside but rejects on his tongue like Abu Jahl
3. Kufr juhudu/ungrateful disbelief: knows the beliefs and rejects
4. Kufr Nifaq/hypocrisy disbelief: no belief but he says he is a believer

Action does not take one out of Islam as action is not included in faith according to the Maturdi’s.

To disbelief in Allah someone has to give him human attributes

Disbelief in the Prophets (upon them peace) is to deny their prophethoods which have been accepted by consensus. Examples which are not accepted by consensus are Dhulqarnan, Dhulqifal, Luqman and Khidr.

Disbelief about religion is to say something is halal/permissible when it is prohibited/haram. For example to say fornication is halal without marriage

Disbelief about the companions is say that a companion is going to hell when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said they are going to paradise, like the ten promised paradise and the Bayat ul-Ridwan/the oath of acceptance. Cursing the companions does not constitute to disbelief but denying that Abu Bakr as a companion does, because he mentioned in the Quran during the migration to Medina. Also to say that the Angel Gabriel made a mistake and should have gone to Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) instead.

Disbelief about scholars is when someone hates a scholar without valid reason. Also to make fun of the circles of knowledge or to say something else is better than Islamic knowledge.

Black magic is a major wrong action but is not disbelief unless you think that it has a power on its own.

A person can fall into disbelief but disbelief does not fall onto a person

A word of disbelief does not mean that the person leaves Islam and the only person who judge this is a Judge/Qadi. The Qadi has to know one school correctly, some information of other schools and he has to be close to someone who can derive his own rulings a mujtahid.

It is not permissible for an average person to call another Muslim a disbeliever because the hadith prevents us. “If a man calls his brother a disbeliever then one of them deserves the description.” (Key to Paradise page 78 hadith from Bukhari 6045, 6103 and Muslim 60, 61)

The prophetic narration, “The difference between a man and disbelief; is leaving prayer.” (Muslim) Ibn Abbas was asked about this and he said this was about kufr an-Na’ma/ingratitide of blessings; minor not major disbelief.

No one can guarantee that they will die on Islam

A person who has pronounced the words of disbelief must:

1. Repent to Allah

2. Repeat testification of faith: “There is no deity except Allah…”

3. Reject previous position

4. Re-marry if necessary

5. Repeat necessary actions like Hajj – disbelieve will destroy all their previous actions

To protect ourselves from disbelief you can say the following:

اللهم إني أعوذُ بِك ان أُشركَ بِك شيئٌ وأنا أعلمُ وأستغفرُكَ لِما لا أعلم وأنتَ علام الغيوب

O’Allah I seek refuge with you; if I have associated with you anything; and I know; and I seek forgiveness to what I do not know; and you know the unseen.

Allahumma inni aa’du bik an urshrika bik shayyan wa ana a’lamu wa astaghfiruka lima la a’lamu wa anta ‘alam al-ghayub

Shirk/polytheism or idolatry


“Dear son do not associate partners to Allah, Truly idolatry is a great injustice.” Luqman 31:12

“Allah does not forgive idolatry, yet he will forgive other than that, to whomever he pleases.” The Women 4:48

Shirk in the Arabic language means to co share or to share

In the sacred law it means to make a partner to God, in essence or worship

There are six types of Shirk:

1. Shirk Istqlal: Autonomous idolatry – to belief in separate deities i.e. Zoroastrians

2. Shirk Tab’ad: separate idolatry – to say God is one of three

3. Shirk Taqrib: approximate idolatry – to say that they are worshipping idols to get closer to God.

4. Shirk Taqlid: Imitative idolatry – to follow fathers

5. Shirk Falsafa: idolatry of the philosophers – to believe that there is a power other than God

6. Shirk Al-Gharad: idolatry of intention – this is carry out actions for other God, in intention

The first four are considered as disbelief/kufr

The fifth: we have to find out: a) if he believes that something has independence power then it is kufr, b) if they believe that they have a power by God then this is innovation/Bi’da
The sixth is a sin

Shirk/idolatry is minor and major.

One to five are major idolatry and number six in minor because of the hadith that it is minor idolatry when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) warned the companions. The Prophet said, “I only fear for you minor idolatry.” The companions asked, “What is minor idolatry?” He replied, “Ostentation.” (Imam Ahmed Musnad 23119)

According to other scholars they state idolatry is three kinds:

1. Idolatry in Lordship/Rububiyyah by two things: a) to deny God and say he is created, b) to say someone can create other than God.

2. Idolatry in Uluhiyyah: this is worship of other things, this is major and the minor shirk has been explained before

3. Idolatry in names and attributes of God, this is of two types: A) to consider something similar to God, someone can forgive other than him. B) To make god similar to creation

Is work one of the excuses for which it is permissible to delay prayer beyond its time?


I work at a time when it is not possible for me to offer Fajr and Zuhr prayers. It is permissible for me to offer them at a time after work is over?. 

are due without a legitimate excuse. Legitimate excuses which allow a Muslim to delay his prayers until the time for them is over include sleeping and forgetting. Doing worldly work is not an excuse for not praying or for delaying a prayer until its time is over. Rather one of the characteristics of the sincere believers is that they do not let business or trade distract them from remembering Allaah and establishing regular prayer.

Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“In houses (mosques) which Allaah has ordered to be raised (to be cleaned, and to be honoured), in them His Name is remembered [i.e. Adhaan, Iqaamah, Salaah (prayers), invocations, recitation of the Qur’aan]. Therein glorify Him (Allaah) in the mornings and in the afternoons or the evenings,

37. Men whom neither trade nor sale (business) diverts from the remembrance of Allaah (with heart and tongue) nor from performing As-Salaah (Iqaamat-as-Salaah) nor from giving the Zakaah. They fear a Day when hearts and eyes will be overturned (out of the horror of the torment of the Day of Resurrection).

38. That Allaah may reward them according to the best of their deeds, and add even more for them out of His Grace. And Allaah provides without measure to whom He wills”

[al-Noor 24:36-38]

Even though these men engaged in trade, buying and selling, that was no excuse and it did not distract them from giving precedence to “the remembrance of Allaah (with heart and tongue) nor from performing As-Salaah (Iqaamat-as-Salaah) nor from giving the Zakaah.”  Rather they made obedience to Allaah and worship of Him their ultimate goal and purpose, and whatever came between them and that goal, they rejected it.

Because giving up worldly interests is hard for most people, and earning and various kinds of trade are dear to them, and it is hard for them to give that up in most cases, and to give precedence to the rights of Allaah, Allaah mentions that which will motivate and encourage them, as He says: “They fear a Day when hearts and eyes will be overturned (out of the horror of the torment of the Day of Resurrection)” – because of the intensity of its horrors and suffering. Hence they will fear that Day, so it become easier for them to strive for the Hereafter and give up that which distracts them from it.

Tafseer al-Sa’di.

Concerning the obligation of offering prayers and the ruling on its timing, Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Verily, As-Salaah (the prayer) is enjoined on the believers at fixed hours”

[al-Nisa’ 4:103].

Shaykh ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Sa’di said:

This means it is enjoined at its time, which indicates that it is obligatory and that it has a time (to be offered) and is not valid at any other time. These are the times that are well known among the Muslims, young and old, scholars and ignorant. They learned that from their Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) who said: “Pray as you have seen me praying.” The phrase “on the believers” indicates that prayer is the measure of faith, and a the quality of person’s prayers corresponds with his level of faith.

Tafseer al-Sa’di.

And Allaah says, warning those who delay their prayers until the time for them is over with no legitimate excuse (interpretation of the meaning):

“Then, there has succeeded them a posterity who have given up As-Salaat (the prayers) [i.e. made their Salaat (prayers) to be lost, either by not offering them or by not offering them perfectly or by not offering them in their proper fixed times] and have followed lusts. So they will be thrown in Hell.

60. Except those who repent and believe (in the Oneness of Allaah and His Messenger Muhammad), and work righteousness. Such will enter Paradise and they will not be wronged in aught”

[Maryam 19:59-60]

And Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“So woe unto those performers of Salaah (prayers) (hypocrites),

5. Those who delay their Salaah (prayer from their stated fixed times)”

[al-Maa’oon 107:4-5]

Ibn Katheer said:

It was narrated from Ibn Mas’ood that it was said to him that Allaah mentions prayer a great deal in the Qur’aan: “Those who delay their Salaah (prayer from their stated fixed times)” [al-Maa’oon 107:5] and “Those who remain constant in their Salaah (prayers)” [al-Ma’aarij 70:23] and “and they are constant in guarding their Salaah (prayers)” [al-An’aam 6:92]. Ibn Mas’ood said: (This means) offering prayers at the stated times. They said: We thought that these verses referred to not praying at all. He said: That is kufr.

Al-Awzaa’i said, quoting from Ibraaheem ibn Yazeed, that ‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Azeez recited: “Then, there has succeeded them a posterity who have given up As-Salaat (the prayers) [i.e. made their Salaat (prayers) to be lost, either by not offering them or by not offering them perfectly or by not offering them in their proper fixed times] and have followed lusts. So they will be thrown in Hell” [Maryam 19:59]. Then he said: “Their giving up their prayers does not mean that they do not pray at all, rather it means that they have given up praying at the proper times.”

Tafseer Ibn Katheer, 3/128, 129.

So it is not permissible for you to delay your prayers from the proper time based on the excuse of work. If you cannot pray on time at work, then you should leave this job and look for another job which will not cause you to miss your prayers. The wise Muslim should not expose himself to the threat of his Lord and he should not sell his religious commitment for the sake of passing worldly interests.

And Allaah knows best.

Making du’aa’ after the obligatory prayers is bid’ah


After fard salat (i.e. after saying salam), some people make Dua while others say only Tasbih Fatmi. Some people are adament that making Dua after salat is Bidat. This is causing some restraint in the cummunity speacially those who follow Imam Abu Hanifa or Shafai. 
Can we make dua’a after salat. 
Can we make dua’a with the imama after salat all together.

It says in Fatawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah:

Making du’aa’ after the obligatory prayers is not Sunnah if it is done by raising the hands, whether that is done by the imam alone or a member of the congregation alone, or it is done by them both together. Rather that is bid’ah, because it was not narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) or any of his companions (may Allaah be pleased with them) did that. With regard to making du’aa’ without doing that (raising the hands etc.), there is nothing wrong with it, because there are some ahaadeeth concerning that.

Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 7/103

The Committee was asked about raising the hands for du’aa’ after the five daily prayers – is it proven that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) raised his hands or not? If it is not proven, is it permissible to raise the hands after the five daily prayers or not?

They replied: It is not proven that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) raised his hands in du’aa’ after the obligatory prayers as far as we know, so raising them after the salaam of an obligatory prayer is contrary to the Sunnah.

Fataawa al-Lajnah, 7/104

The Committee also stated that saying du’aa’ out loud after the five daily prayers or regular Sunnah prayers, or reciting du’aa’ in unison as a regular practice is a reprehensible innovation (bid’ah), because it was not proven that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) or his companions (may Allaah be pleased with them) did anything like that. Whoever makes du’aa’ after the obligatory or regular Sunnah prayers in unison is going against the way of Ahl al-Sunnah wa’l-Jamaa’ah, and for those people to accuse those who disagree with them of being kaafirs and not belonging to Ahl al-Sunnah wa’l-Jamaa’ah, is misguidance, ignorance and a distortion of the facts.

Fataawa Islamiyyah, 1/319

And Allaah knows best.