Category Archives: Islam

Criteria for Hiring and Firing

Once the Prophet (sal Allahu alaihi wa sallam) passed by the grazing place of camels which were given as Sadaqah. He saw the shepherd lying naked in the sun. The Prophet (sal Allahu alaihi wa sallam) immediately dismissed him and said, “No shameless person should work for us.” [Mabsut Sarkhasi]

What are my standards for hiring and firing people?

Is money my God, or do I have a Higher Deity whom I worship, obey and seek to please?

If a woman marries more than one husband, which one will she be with in Paradise?


Praise be to Allaah.

There are three scholarly opinions on this matter:

That she will be with the one who was best in character and conduct with her in this world;

That she will choose between them;

That she will be with the last of her husbands.

The best and most correct of these views is the third one, concerning which there is a hadeeth attributed to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) (marfoo’): “Any woman whose husband dies and she marries someone else after him, she will be with the last of her husbands.” This was classed as saheeh by Al-Albaani (may Allaah have mercy on him) in Saheeh Al-Jaami’, 2704, and in Al-Silsilah al-Saheehah, 1281.

This is by way of general response to the question. A detailed discussion of the evidence for the three points of view follows:

The evidence for the first view:

Al-Qurtubi said:

Abu Bakr ibn al-Najjaad said: Ja’far ibn Muhammad ibn Shaakir told us, ‘Ubayd ibn Ishaaq al-‘Attaar told us, Sinaan ibn Haaroon told us, from Humayd from Anas: that Umm Habeebah the wife of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “O Messenger of Allaah, if a woman had two husbands in this life, then they all died and came together in Paradise, with which of them would she be – the first or the last?” He said: “With the one whose attitude and conduct with her was best, O Umm Habeebah; a good attitude brings one the best of this world and the Hereafter.”

(Al-Tadhkirah fi Ahwaal al-Mawtaa wa’l-Aakhirah, 2/278).hijab

I say: this hadeeth is da’eef jiddan (very weak), and has two things wrong with its isnaad: ‘Ubayd ibn Ishaaq al-‘Attaar and Sinaan ibn Haaroon. The former is da’eef jiddan, and the latter is da’eef.

The views of the ‘ulamaa’:

It was reported that Yahyaa ibn Ma’een said: ‘Ubayd ibn Ishaaq al-‘Attaar is nothing (i.e., what he says is not to be taken into account).

Abu Haatim al-Raazi said: we think that he is a good person, but he is not very reliable and there are some odd things in his ahaadeeth.

In al-Du’afaa’ wa’l-Matrookeen by al-Nasaa’i (p.72), it says: his hadeeth is matrook (to be ignored, not accepted).

Al-Dhahabi said: he was classed as da’eef (weak) by Yahyaa. Al-Bukhaari said: he has some some munkar ahaadeeth. Al-Azdi said: his hadeeth is matrook. Al-Daaraqutni said: (he is) da’eef. Abu Haatim, on the other hand, accepted him! Ibn ‘Udayy said: in general his ahadeeth are munkar.

(Meezaan al-I’tidaal, 5/24)

Ibn ‘Udayy said in al-Kaamil (5/347): this hadeeth is one of his munkar reports. And he said: most of what he reported is either munkar with regard to the isnaad (chain of narrators) or munkar with regard to the matn (text of the hadeeth).

With regard to Sinaan ibn Haaroon:

Ibn Hibbaan said:

His ahaadeeth are very munkar, he narrated munkar reports from al-mashaaheer.

Yahyaa ibn Ma’een said: the hadeeth of Sinaan ibn Haaroon al-Burjami are nothing (are not to be accepted).

(Al-Majrooheen, 1/354)

al-‘Aqeeli mentioned him in al-Du’afaa’ (2/171) and mentioned this hadeeth narrated by him.

= Therefore, this hadeeth is not valid to be used as evidence. It is da’eef jiddan (very weak), so this opinion does not count.

The second view

which is that a woman will choose between her husbands.

I could not find any evidence for those who state this.

In al-Tadhkirah fi Ahwaal al-Mawtaa wa’l-Aakhirah (2/278), this matter is mentioned, then the author says: and it is said that she will have the choice, if she had a husband.”

Al-‘Ajlooni said: … and it was said that she will be with the best of them in character and conduct, and it was said that she will have the choice. (Kashf al-Khafaa’, 2/392).

This is the view regarded as most correct by Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah preserve him), as stated in his Fataawaa, 2/53)

The third view

This view is supported by plenty of evidence:

Imaam al-Tabaraani said:

3130 Bakr told us, he said, Muhammad ibn Abi’l-Sirri al-‘Asqallaani told us, he said, al-Waleed ibn Muslim told us, he said, Abu Bakr ibn ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Abi Maryam told us, from ‘Atiyah ibn Qays al-Kilaa’i who said: Mu’aawiyah ibn Abi Sufyaan proposed marriage to Umm al-Darda’ after Abu’l-Darda’ had passed away. Umm al-Darda’ said: I heard Abu’l-Darda’ say: I heard the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say: any woman whose husband dies and she marries someone else after him, she will be with the last of her husbands, and I would not choose you over Abu’l-Darda’. So Mu’aawiyah wrote to her (saying), you have to fast, for it is a protection.

(al-Mu’jam al-Awsat, 3/275)

I say: there are two problems with this hadeeth: the fact that Abu Bakr ibn Abi Maryam is da’eef, and the fact that al-Waleed ibn Muslim did not clearly state haddathanaa ([So and so] told us) in the rest of the isnaad.

The views of the ‘ulamaa’:

Ibn Hibbaan said:

Abu Bakr ibn Abi Maryam was one of the best of the people of al-Shaam, but he had a bad memory and would narrate things about which he was obviously confused. The problem is not so bad that everything he narrated deserves to be rejected (matrook), but neither is he so trustworthy that what he says can be taken as evidence. In my view his reports should not be used as evidence if the isnaad is only through him. (al-Majrooheen, 3/146)

The tadlees (deception) of al-Waleed ibn Muslim is well known. His tadlees gives the impression that all the narrators are equal, by inserting the nameimages of a da’eef narrator between the names of two thiqah (trustworthy) narrators. Hence the scholars stipulated that the reports of narrators of this type can only be accepted if they clearly state “haddathanaa” ([So and so] told us) in every stage of the isnaad after their name is mentioned.

(See: al-Tabyeen li Asmaa’ al-Mudalliseen, by Sabt Ibn al-‘Ajami, p. 235; and Tabaqaat al-Mudalliseen, by al-Haafiz ibn Hajar, p. 51)

Imaam Abu’l-Shaykh al-Asbahaani said:

Ahmad ibn Ishaaq al-Jawhari told us, he said, Ismaa’eel ibn Zaraarah told us, he said, Abu’l-Maleeh al-Raqqi told us from Maymoon ibn Mahraan from Umm al-Darda’ from Abu’l-Darda’ that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said that a woman will be with the last of her husbands.

(Tabaqaat al-Muhaaditheen bi Asbahaan, 4/36)

I say, the men of the hadeeth (isnaad) are thiqaat mashhooroon (trustworthy and well known), apart from Ahmad ibn Ishaaq al-Jawhari, for whom I cannot find any biographical details apart from the fact that Abu’l-Shaykh himself stated that this was one of his hasan ahaadeeth.

If this is indeed the case, then this is the best isnaad concerning this matter. And Allaah knows best.

Al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadi said:

4803 Samurah ibn Hajar Abu Hajar al-Khurasaani went and settled in Al-Anbaar, where he narrated from Hamzah ibn Abi Hamzah al-Nusaibi and ‘Ammaar ibn ‘Ata’ al-Khurasaani and al-Rabee’ ibn Badr; Ishaaq ibn Bahlool al-Tanookhi narrated from him, he informed us, ‘Ali ibn Abi ‘Ali told us, Abu Ghaanim Muhammad ibn Yoosuf al-Azraq told us, my father told us, he said, my grandfather told us, Samurah ibn Hajar Abu Hajar al-Khurasaani told us from Hamzah al-Nusaibi from ibn Abi Maleekah from ‘Aa’ishah that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

“A woman will be with the last of her husbands.”

(Taareekh Baghdaad, 9/228)

I said, this hadeeth is da’eef jiddan (very weak); it includes Hamzah al-Nusaibi, who is da’eef jiddan.

The views of the ‘ulamaa’:

Imaam al-Nasaa’i said:

The hadeeth (of Hamzah ibn al-Nusaibi) is to be rejected (matrook).

(al-Du’afaa’ wa’l-Matrookeen, p. 39)

Ibn al-Jawzi said:

Ahmad said: the hadeeth (of Hamzah ibn al-Nusaibi) is to be rejected (matrooh). Yahyaa said: he is nothing, he is not even worth a penny. Al-Bukhaari and al-Raazi said: his hadeeth is munkar. Al-Nasaa’i and al-Daaraqutni said: the hadeeth (of Hamzah ibn al-Nusaibi) is to be rejected (matrook). Ibn ‘Udayy said: he fabricates ahaadeeth. Ibn Hibbaan said: he is the only thiqah (trustworthy) narrator who transmitted fabricated ahaadeeth and it looks as if he is deliberately narrating them; it is not permissible to report from him.

(al-Du’afaa’ wa’l-Matrookeen by Ibn al-Jawzi, 1/237)

Al-Bayhaqi said:

Muhammad ibn ‘Abd-Allaah al-Haafiz informed us, Abu’l-‘Abbaas Muhammad ibn Ya’qoob told us, Yahyaa ibn Abi Taalib told us, Ishaaq ibn Abi Taalib told us, Ishaaq ibn Mansoor told us, ‘Eesaa ibn ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Sulami told us, from Abu Ishaaq from Silah from Hudhayfah (may Allaah be pleased with him), that he said to his wife, “If you want to be my wife in Paradise, do not marry anyone after I die, for in Paradise a woman will be with the last of her husbands in this world. This is why Allaah forbade the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) to marry anyone after he died, because they will be his wives in Paradise.” (al-Sunan, 7/69)

I say: the isnaad includes Abu Ishaaq al-Subay’i, who is mudallis and may mix things up, so the report is da’eef.

The views of the ‘ulamaa’:

See: Man rumiya bi’l-Ikhtilaat by al-Taraabulsi (p. 64) and Tabaqaat al-Mudalliseen by Ibn Hajar (p. 42).

It was classed as da’eef by al-‘Allaamah al-Shaykh al-Albaani (may Allaah have mercy on him) in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah (1281).

A report narrated by Ibn ‘Asaakir (19/193/1) from ‘Ikrimah:

Asmaa’ bint Abi Bakr was married to al-Zubayr ibn al-‘Awwaam, who was strict with her. She came to her father and complained to him about that, and he said: O my daughter, have patience, for if a woman has a righteous husband, then he dies, and she does not marry anyone after him, they will be joined together in Paradise.

Shaykh al-Albaani (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

The men of this report are thiqaat (trustworthy), but there is Irsaal ( a break in the chain), because ‘Ikrimah never met Abu Bakr, but he may have heard this report from Asmaa’ bint Abi Bakr. And Allaah knows best.

Al-Silsilah al-Saheehah, 3/276.


The view that a woman will be with the husband who was best in character and conduct with her in this world has no saheeh evidence to support it.

The view that a woman will have the choice of whichever husband she wishes to be with has no evidence to support it at all.

The view that she will be with the last of her husbands is the view that is most likely to be correct, because the hadeeth of Umm al-Dardaa’ is likely to be hasan and marfoo’ (attributed to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)). It is supported by the reports of Hudhayfah and Asmaa’ which are mawqoof (their isnaads stop at the Sahaabi and are not directly attributed to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)). They are fit to be taken as a corroboration of the marfoo’ report and as proof that there is a reasonable basis for this view.

The hadeeth was classed as saheeh by al-‘Allaamah Shaykh al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah (1281).

In any case, we prefer it to mere opinion.

And Allaah knows best.

O Allaah, bestow Your blessings and peace upon Muhammad and his family and companions.

Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid

I went from Worshiping Bob Marley Music and smoking weed to finally finding Peace in Islam

A story of David who went from worshiping Bob Marley and numbing his mind to Music Marijuana and Smoking weed until he finally found Peace in the religion of truth Islam(Peace acquired by Surrendering your will to the Creator your Maker) .

Fiqh of Minorities

By Taha Jabir Alalwani,
Web Summery by Omar Tarazi

Fiqh Al-‘Galliyyat

Fiqh- (i.e. Islamic Jurisprudence) is defined by Ibn-Khaldun as the classification of actions/obligations as: obligatory, encouraged, permissible, discouraged, forbidden, based on the Qur’an, the Sunnah, and the decisions of prior jurists.

Al-‘Jalliyyat- (i.e. Minorities) is a current political term signifying those groups of citizens of a state who differ in race, language, culture, or religion from the majority of the population

Fiqh Al-‘Jalliyyat or Fiqh of minorities is the idea that the Muslim Jurist must relate the general Islamic jurisprudence to the specific circumstances of a specific community, living in specific circumstances where what is suitable for them may not be suitable for others. This jurist must not only have a strong background in Islamic sciences, but must also be well versed in the sociology, economics, politics, and international relations relating to that community. The purpose of Fiqh Al-‘Jalliyyat is not to recreate Islam, rather it is a set of methodologies that govern how a jurist would work within the flexibility of the religion to best apply it to particular circumstances. Some of the methodologies include:

Reworking the question:

A wrong question can lead to a wrong answer. Before answering a question the Jurist must know the problem that caused the question to be asked, and rework the question to deal with the core issue involved. When the people asked the Prophet how the moon worked, their core issue was to understand its purpose. The answer came, “They ask you concerning the new moons, Say: they are but signs to mark fixed periods of time for people and pilgrimage”(2:189). The Qur’an reworked the question and answered regarding the purpose of the cycle of new moons, not regarding the scientific mechanism that runs it.

Example #1:

A questioner asks, “Is it forbidden (haram) for a Muslim woman to be married to a non Muslim, and what should one do?”

The standard answer based on the Qur’an is that it is forbidden for a Muslim woman to be married to a non-Muslim so she should be divorced immediately

However in this particular case the circumstances are as follows:

The woman has just converted to Islam and she has a husband and two young kids

The husband is very supportive, but is not at this time interested in converting

The woman was told immediately after converting that she had to divorce her husband of 20 years

Within these circumstances the question should have been:

Is it worse for a Muslim woman to be married to a non-Muslim husband or for her to leave the religion?

The answer is that leaving the religion is much worse, so therefore it is acceptable for her to continue with her marriage and she is responsible before Allah on Judgment Day.

Example #2:

A questioner asks: “Is it forbidden to be involved in an un-Islamic/corrupt government or institution?”

The standard Fiqh answer would be yes it is forbidden, because you do not want to be corrupted by the system or be seen as supporting a corrupt system in front of other weaker Muslims who might be negatively influenced

However in this particular case the circumstances are as follows:

The government’s actions can be influenced by being involved in the system.

The government has secular authority over the Muslims in that country and gives them the right to freely practice their religion.

The Muslims are awarded by the government the right to hold public office.

The government currently exerts laws and policies that are not in the best interest of the global or local Muslim community.

The Muslims have the obligation of spreading their religion.

With this information the question must be reworked to reflect the totality of the situation:

Is it permissible for Muslims to participate in the political arena of a democratic government in order to affect policy in favor of the Muslims, or is it better to not get involved for fear of being corrupted by the system?

Under these circumstances the answer is that it is permissible and an obligation on the part of the Muslim community to get involved as long as they are not forced to sacrifice their integrity. For the community it would be considered a type of jihad. If a particular member of the community feels him/her self to be too weak in religion then there is no harm if that person does not directly participate, but supports financially or in other ways instead.

Example #3:

A questioner asks: “If a Muslim sees the new moon for Ramadan should we follow him?”

The standard Islamic answer is yes. If a trustworthy Muslim sees the moon then it would be Ramadan.

However in this particular case:

The questioner is part of a local community and the answer to the question will determine whether the community fasts together or is split.

The question should be reworked to say:

Which is worse, being off a day one way or the other for Ramadan or splitting the local Muslim community and not following the local leadership.

Absolutely without question the unity of the community is more important, and the Prophet Mohammed commanded us to follow our leaders even if we don’t like what they do.

Learning from prior rulings:

The golden rule of Fiqh is: ‘changes of Al-‘Ahkam (judgments) are permissible with the change in times’. The schools of Fiqh and the past judgments were different because they were generated for different times and different people. For this reason a jurist should not apply prior historical rulings to modern situation without a careful analysis of the circumstances and reasoning that generated the prior ruling.

For example, the prophet first forbade visiting cemeteries than he allowed it later saying, “Formerly, I forbade you from visiting cemeteries. You may visit them for they remind you of Al’Akhira (i.e. the next life). The reason is that there were some bad pagan customs surrounding cemeteries, and he wanted to distance his people from that. After a time when the Muslims were stronger in their Imaan the restriction was no longer necessary so it was removed. Indeed there are many documented cases of the four enlightened caliphs making changes to the established rulings. Occasionally minor or major changes were even made to the rulings of the Prophet, because the circumstances had changed.

Some things to keep in mind regarding the early Jurists rulings:

Many early scholars did not thoroughly document how they arrived at rulings.

Many mistakes are found in historical books on Fiqh because the jurists didn’t always have access to all of the relevant material. It has been only recently that jurists have been able to make computer searches to speed up research on issues.

The Muslims were not under conditions such that they had to escape to non-Islamic countries seeking lost rights or escaping from persecution.

The concept of citizen, duties of a citizen, international law, and diplomatic relations didn’t exist in the form that they are today.

In ancient times, the language of military power was supreme. A country’s borders were only established because the military found it difficult to move forwards.

Globalization didn’t exist. People in ancient times lived on a planet of islands.

Therefore we should not fight each other over the literal rulings of the past. Rather we should study the methodology, wisdom, and intent of the prior rulings to best understand how they should apply to the modern world. The mere stress on minor issues of rulings without understanding intent will inevitably cause us to become like the people of “Al-Baqarah”.

Understanding the purpose and intent:

The central theme of Fiqh is: the performance of man as inheritor of the earth particularly from the point of view of man’s compliance or resistance to the divine purpose of the creation and how he falls short of that purpose. The debate regarding the realties of man’s mind and our abilities to evaluate ourselves independent of revaluation has gone on for centuries. Islam recognizes the role of the human intellect as part of the decision making process. Also, we are provided with two books to help guide us in our decisions, the revelation (Qur’an) and the moving cosmos which is the sum total of all aspects of life. The study of each book leads to a better understanding of the other. Some of the criteria for the method of study that emerge to facilitate a better understanding of ultimate purposes are:

Realize the unity of message and structure within the Qur’an and studying its application by the Prophet Mohammed in specific practical everyday matters. Because the documentation of the Sunnah was not perfect and some questionable sayings have been mixed in, we should hold everything to the benchmark of the Qur’an. If a saying does not appear to be in keeping with the Qur’an, we should follow the Qur’an in such circumstances and simply acknowledge that we might not have all the information surrounding that Sunnah (i.e. the circumstances that generated it).

Be in line with the concept that the Qur’an and the Prophethood in general are a completion of the legacy of past prophets. The message and purpose have always remained the same but the form has changed as human society has matured.

Grasp the delicate differences between humanity and the individual, and how the Qur’an relates to each.

Be alert to the inherit logic of the Qur’an, and the parallel nature of that logic for both capturing the divine purpose, and the spiritual logic of the All Knowing, and yet speaking to and being logical to the unlettered human mind.

Adopt the Qur’anic concept of geography on the basis that the world is completely for Allah, and so the Qur’an is inherently a global message, and should be treated and understood as such.

Contemplate the facts of life, so that when a question is formulated it is done while taking into consideration all aspects involved.

Understand the aims and purposes of the Shari’ah as well as the resulting outcomes

Test the Fiqh verdicts to evaluate their validity by seeing if they provoke the desired outcome of bringing people closer to the pure path of Allah.


The Problem of Daru-Kufer (land of infidels)

Some modern scholars, and certain groups of people have thrown a significant monkey wrench in the Muslims’ ability to live and interact with western countries like the United States. They pose the argument that we should all move back to Darul-Islam (land of Islam), and if we are forced to live in Daru-Kufer (land of infidels) we should consider it a temporary stay and should either not participate or fight the “Kufer” government. The answer to this argument is three fold:

The Muslim Ummah (nation/model)

Daru-Kufer and Daru-Islam are not concepts that existed at the time of the prophet. They were introduced later to describe the war torn oppressive world outside the borders of the Islamic state, and the peace and justice that existed within. The only group/nation concept that exists within the Qur’an and Sunnah is the concept of the Muslim Ummah. The Muslim Ummah as described in the Shari’ah is completely independent from association in any way with numbers of people or geographical locations / boundaries. Rather it is associated with the Islamic principles and the Islamic way of life as a model for people. So even a single people can represent this principle, as in fact the Qur’an does in referring to the Prophet Abraham.

(16:120) Abraham was indeed an Ummah , devoutly obedient to Allah, and true in faith, and he did not worship other than Allah.

(3:110) You (Muslims) are the best Ummah sent out to mankind, to encourage righteousness and to forbid the harmful, and to have complete faith in Allah….

The above ayah summarizes the definition of the Muslim Ummah. The Muslim Ummah is those people who are linked no matter where they are in the world with a common love of Allah, and they stand up for justice equally even if it is against them. Both later and early Jurists understood that being the “best” for all people meant that in the past people didn’t feel safe with people from other groups, but everyone feels safe and secure within and in contact with the Muslim Ummah.

Fighting & Relationships with others

(60:8) Allah does not forbid you from dealing kindly and justly with those who did not fight and drive you out of your homes for your religion, For Allah loves those who are just. (60:9) Allah does however forbid you from those who fought you for your religion and drove you out of your homes and supported others against you so that you will be forced to submit, and turn to them for friendship and protection, and whoever submits to them (in these circumstances) has wronged himself.

These two verses lay the legal foundation for the relations between the Muslims and Non-Muslims, and they speak for themselves. At all times justice is obligatory on the Muslim, and kindness is also until it is used as an excuse for committing treason against Allah. Other than that we should treat everyone both Muslim and non with justice, respect, and kindness so that we will get closer to Allah and attract people to Islam. Therefore, even if a government or institution is not perfect in its Islamic practices, but does not commit open and severe oppression against the Muslims, Muslims are allowed to work within the system to try to improve it. This concept is not a new one to Fiqh because all the scholars and teachers after the end of the enlightened Caliphate and the beginning of royalty continued to teach and worked within the imperfect system to serve the greater Muslim Ummah despite the problems within the government.

The Example of Abyssinia (present Ethiopia)

The example we have of Muslims taking refuge in another country to protect themselves and their religion is the emigration in Abyssinia Like today the Muslims at that time were being persecuted in their homeland, and the Prophet Mohammed sent them to Abyssinia because their rights would be protected there.

The Quraish (the leading tribe of Makkah) sent two emissaries to make a plea before the Abyssinia king Negus to return the refugees back to Quraish. Negus however, was not about to make a judgment on people in absentia. So after hearing the arguments of the emissaries (Amr, and Abdullah) he asked to hear the defense of the Muslims. When Negus’s messenger informed the Muslims of Negus’s decision to hear them, they had a discussion amongst themselves and decided to stick to the truth no matter what. They also agreed upon Ja’far ibnu ‘Abi Talib as a spokesperson.

When they came before the King, the Muslims didn’t bow to the king, and when asked explained that they only bowed to Allah. Then Jafar said, “O King! We were a people in ignorance, we worshipped idols, rejected kin, abused our neighbors, and the strong among us oppressed the weak. We continued so until Allah sent us a prophet from among us.. He invited us to worship the one God, leaving the idols of wood and stone, and to tell the truth, guard the trust, to keep good relations with both family and neighbors, to give charity… We have come to your country, chosen you and not anybody else, and desire being near you, and hope that we would not be treated unfairly in your audience, O king”

The king was impressed with the Muslims argument and granted them “political asylum”. During their stay they developed very strong relations with the Negus and his people, and when his throne was challenged they prayed for him and were ready to help defend him if requested. They continued to live in Abyssinia until they were obligated to go support the new Muslim state in Madina fighting off its enemies.

Some lessons to learn:

Existence of Muslims in any country should be planned on the bases of being permanent, not temporary or accidental.

We should drop concepts like Darul-Islam and Darul-Kufr and consider all land to be for Allah as the Qur’an says:

(7:128) Moses said to his people: “Seek support from Allah and be patient, surly the earth is Allah’s to grant to the servants of his choice, and the best is for righteous”

Muslims in a foreign country should work together, within the established system to better their position as long as they do not get so carried away that they sacrifice a core pillar to their religion.

We must present Islam in our own words, in the most tactful way possible so that we gain the interest and respect of those around us.

Chronology of Early Scholars of Islam

Chronology of Early Scholars of Islam
with color coding
(Caliphs from SahabahIsna-‘Ashari(12)ImamsFiqh Imams (4)Sihah-Sitta Imams, & others)

Compiled by Khalid Shaukat (of

The chronology presented here gives an understanding of the time difference and generation gaps of famous names in early Islamic history, e.g., Imam Abu-Hanifah was early enough to have seen Sahabah, while Imam Malik, Imam Shafi’i, and Imam Ahmad bin-Hambal had not met or seen any Sahabah. Compare the time frame of Imam Bokhari & Imam Muslim with those of Imam Malik or Imam Abu-Hanifah. See the times of 12 Imams of Isna-‘ashari faith (The Twelvers).

Hadrat Abu-Bakar Siddiq 51 BH*/573 CE*, Makkah 13 AH*/23 August 634 (Tuesday) Medinah First Caliph (Khalifah) of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), Khalifatur-Rasool
Hadrat Umar ibn alKhattab 41 BH/582 Makkah 24 AH/7 November 644 (Sunday) Medinah Second Caliph (Khalifah), Title “Ameerul-Momineen” was first adopted
Uthman ibn Affaan 47 BH/577 Makkah 18 Zul-Hijja 35 AH/17 June 656 (Friday) Medinah Ameerul-Momineen, Third Caliph (Khalifah)
Imam Ali ibn Abi-Taalib(1) 13 Rajab 23BH/600 Makkah 21 Ramadhan 40AH/28 January 661 (Thur) Kufah Ameerul-Momineen, Fourth Caliph (Khalifah)
Imam Hasan ibn Ali (2) 15 Ramadan 3 AH/28 February 625 (Thu) Medinah Safar 49 or 50 AH/669 or 670 Medinah Ameerul-Momineen (5th Khalifah), First son of Ali & Fatimah, Grand Child of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), was probably poisoned
Mo’awiah ibn Abi-Sufian 12 BH/611 Makkah 60 AH/680 Dimashq 6th Khalifah (Brother-in-law of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh))
Imam Husain ibn Ali (3) 3 Sha’ban 4 AH/8 Jan 626 (Wednesday) Medinah 10 Muharram 61 AH/9 Oct 680 (Tue) Karbala, Iraq Shaheed-e-Karbala, Second son of Ali & Fatimah, Grand Child of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)
Imam Ali Zainul-Abideen (4) 5 Sha’ban 38 AH/5 Jan 659 (Saturday) Medinah 25 Muharram 95 AH/20 Oct 713 (Friday) Medinah Son of Imam Husain
Imam Muhammad Baqir (5) 1 Rajab 57 AH/9 May 677 (Saturday) Medinah 7 Zul-Hijja 114 AH/28 Jan 733 (Wednesday) Medinah Son of Imam Ali Zainul-Abideen
Imam-1: Abu-Hanifa 80 AH/699 Kufah, Iraq 150 AH/767 Baghdad Taabai, Scholar of Fiqh (Jurisprudence), student of Imam Baqir & Imam Ja’far Sadiq
Imam Ja’far Sadiq (6) 17 Rabi-al-Awwal 83 AH/10 Apr 702 (Monday) Medinah 25 Shawwal 148 AH/13 Dec 765 (Fri) Medinah Taabai, Son of Imam Baqir. He was Imam of Fiqh Ja’fri (Jurisprudence)
Imam-2: Maalik 93 AH/712 Medinah 179 AH/795 Medinah Taba-Taabai, Compiler of Hadith & Scholar of Fiqh (Jurisprudence), student of Imam Ja’far Sadiq
Imam Abu-Yusuf(Hanafi) 113 AH/731 Kufah, Iraq 187 AH/803 Baghdad Taba-Taabai, Student of Abu-Hanifah, Scholar of Fiqh (Jurisprudence)
Up to the time of Imam Ja’far Sadiq, friends of Ali (Shi’aan-e-Ali) were not considered any different from other Muslims. Imam Ja’far Sadiq had two sons, Isma’il and Musa al-Kazim. Followers of Isma’il become the “Seveners” or “Ismailis. Followers of Musa al-Kazim become the “Twelvers” who believed that the lineage of Imam continued with Imam Musa al-Kazim. Beginning of Shi’ism was not documented before this time, but long after, when the concept of 12 Imams became the basis of Shi’as after the 12th Imam’s disappearance in 878 CE.
Imam Musa Kazim (7) 7 Safar 129 AH/27 Oct 745 (Thurs) near Medinah 25 Rajab 183 AH/1 Sep 799 (Sunday) Kadhimiya Son of Imam Ja’far Sadiq, born in Al-Abwa 7 miles from Medinah, died in prison
Imam Muhammad (Hanafi) 132 AH/750 Wasit, Iraq 189 AH/805 Baghdad Student of Imam Maalik, and Imam Abu-Yusuf (Jurisprudence)
Imam-3: Shafi’i 150 AH/767 Ghaza 204 AH/819 Egypt Student of Imam Maalik (Jurisprudence)
Imam Ali Reza (8) 11 Zul-Qa’da 153 AH/4 Nov 770 (Sunday) Medinah 17 Safar 203 AH/24 Aug 818 (Tue) Mash’had, Iran Son of Imam Musa Kazim
Imam-4: Ahmad ibn Hambal 164 AH/780 Baghdad 241 AH/855 Baghdad Student of Imam Shafi’i, Scholar of Fiqh (Jurisprudence)
Imam Bokhari 194 AH/810 Bukhara 256 AH/870 Samarqand Compiler of the most authentic Hadith book
Imam Jawwad Taqi (9) 10 Rajab 195 AH/8 April 811 (Tues) Medinah 30 Zul-Qa’da 220 AH/26 Nov 835 (Fri) Kadhimiya Full name was Imam Muhammad Jawwad Taqi Son of Imam Ali Reza
Imam Abu-Daood 202 AH/817 Sindh-Kabul 275 AH/889 Basrah, Iraq Scholar and Compiler of Hadith
Imam Muslim 206 AH/821 Nishapur, Iran 261 AH/875 Nishapur, Iran Compiler of 2nd most authentic Hadith book
Imam Ibn Maja 209 AH/824 Qazween, Iraq 273 AH/887 Qazween, Iraq Scholar and Compiler of Hadith
Imam Tirmidhi 209 AH/824 Tirmidh, Balkh 279 AH/892 Tirmidh, Balkh Scholar and Compiler of Hadith
Imam Nasaai 214 AH/829 Khurasan, Iran 303 AH/915 Egypt Scholar and Compiler of Hadith
Imam Ali Naqi (10) 5 Rajab 215 AH/28 Aug 830 (Sunday) Surba, Iraq 3 Rajab 254 AH/28 June 868 (Monday) Samarra, Iraq Son of Imam Muhammad Jawwad Taqi
Imam Hasan Askari (11) 8 Rabi-al-Thani 232 AH/1 Dec 846 (Wednesday) Samarra, Iraq 8 Rabi-al-Awwal 260 AH/1 Jan 874 (Friday) Samarra, Iraq Son of Imam Ali Naqi
Imam Muhammad Mehdi (12) 15 Sha’ban 255 AH/29 July 869 (Friday) Samarra, Iraq Disappeared at age 9 in 878 CE Son of Imam Hasan Askari. Followers of Isna-‘ashari faith (The Twelvers) believe that he is still alive, hiding, and will re-appear near Judgment Day to establish Kingdom of Allah, to fill the world with equality and justice.

BH = Before Hijra     AH = After Hijra     CE = Common Era
Chronolgy for Caliphs from Sahabah is taken from various books on Islamic history.
Isna-Ash’ari Imams chronology is basically taken from “Millat-e-Islamia ki Mukhtasar Tareekh” by Sarwat Saulat, Page 157.
Chronology for Fiqh Imams is taken from “Tazkira Imam Abu-Hanifah” by Jamil Ahmad Sharqpuri, various pages.
Copyright ©     Updated December 4, 2009