Category Archives: Hanafi

Hanafi Fiqh

Interrupting the prayer to join a group prayer

  • If someone completed his obligatory prayer alone, then he may join the group prayer afterwards as an optional prayer, but not after Fajr, Asr or Maghrib.
  • If he has not made the first prostration of the second subset of Fajr; he interrupts Fajr and joins the group.
  • If he had prostrated once in the 3rd subset of Thuhr, 2nd subset of Maghrib or Fajr then he completes the prayer.
  • If he was praying the sunnah mu’akkadah (ascertained merit) before Thuhr or the Friday Group Prayer, and then the group prayer or the speech started, then he interrupts after competing the first pair of subsets.

Dealing with injuries and continuously breaking one’s Wudu’

Removing ritual impurity (hadath) on injured body parts

If one has an injury/wound with a bandage/splint and it would be harmful to remove it, then one first washes all one is able to wash without harm, then wipes what one is able to (i.e. without harm) of the body part and wipes most of the bandage/splint.

If the bandage falls off while the wound has not yet healed, then one does not need to wipe its replacement, but it is better to do so. If the bandage falls off and reveals a healed wound, then the wiping has been invalidated, and one must wash what has not been washed.

General rule in ablution (wuduu’) or the Complete Body Wash (ghusl)

If one is able to wash an injury/wound without harm one must do so (if washing the body part is an obligation). If not, then one must wipe it if this can be done without harm. If there is ointment or the like on the wound and it would be harmful to remove it, then one wipes the ointment if it is not harmful to do so.

Becoming partially excused from taking ablution

Having an excuse requires that something is breaking the ablution continuously. A person who, within the entire time period of any prayer which is obligatory to perform, could not keep his ablution for the amount of time it takes to perform the obligatory prayer and its ablution, becomes an excused person.

For example, if one of the causes breaking an ablution exists continuously, such as irregular vaginal blood (lasts less than 3 days or more than 10 days, or it falls within 15 days of an ended menstruation), urine leaks, nose bleed etc. so that from the beginning till the end of any prescribed prayer time one could not stop it long enough to take ablution and perform only the obligatory prayer, one becomes a person with an excuse.

One remains in this state until an entire prayer time passes without the occurrence of the reason for ones excuse, such as urine leakage.

A person with an excuse does not take ablution if his excuse occurs, but his ablution is invalidated by the exit of any obligatory prayer time. It is also invalidated if his ablution is broken for any other reason than the one that he is excused for. As long as his ablution is not invalidated, he can pray as much as he wants, but he cannot lead the prayer of those who are not excused.

Witr Prayer

  • Witr’s is a duty, has three consequtive subsets (no tasliim after the first sitting for tashahhud) with FatiHah and a suurah, and with a supplication (qunuut) before bowing in the 3rd subset.
  • When one wants to make the Witr Supplication, one raises the hands like in the proscription while saying “Allahu Akbar,” then starts to supplicate silently.
  • There is no regularly prescribed qunut supplication (like the supplication of Witr) other than in Witr.
  • If there are calamities, such as war, one may make qunut supplication in other than Witr in the standing after the bow (rukuu^) in the last subset.
  • Followers remain silent if the leader of the prayer makes the qunuut supplication in Fajr.
  • Witr is prayed in group in Ramadan only, by the consensus of the muslims, and with loud reciting.

Preferred and disliked prayer times

The Preferred Prayer Times

  • Its better (mustahabb) to postpone the Fajr Prayer until light appears in the sky, but there should be time enough left (so that it would be hypothetically possible) to pray fajr in the sunnah manner twice and perform all of the prerequisites of prayer once. This is to ensure that there is enough time to repeat the prayer if something should happen that invalidates the first one.
  • It’s mustahabb (virtuous) to delay the Early Afternoon (Thuhr) Prayer in the summer to avoid the strong heat. However in the winter it is a virtue to pray it urgently.
  • It’s mustahabb (virtuous) to postpone the Asr Prayer, as long as the color of the sun does not change to the extent that on can look at it without difficulty to the eyes. This is to increase the amount of optional prayers, because optional prayers are makruuh after the completion of Asr Prayer.
  • It’s virtuous to pray the Maghrib Prayer urgently, and disliked to delay it.
  • It’s mustahabb (virtuous) to postpone the Eishaa prayer until 1/3 of the night has passed. This is to avoid idle talk after Eishaa prayer. However, it has been said that its better to pray it early in the summer in order to maximize the number of people showing up for prayer in the mosque. There is no problem in postponing the Eishaa prayer until midnight, but beyond that is makruuh since few people will show up and most idle conversing has already ended.
  • For the one who is used to getting up at night to pray, it is virtuous to delay Witr Prayer until the end of the night. Otherwise, one should pray before sleeping.
  • On cloudy days, because it is difficult to keep track the prayer times, it is mustahabb to postpone Fajr Prayer, Thuhr Prayer and Maghrib Prayer. However, one should pray Asr Prayer and Eishaa prayer urgently, to avoid postponing Asr Prayer to the makruuh time and avoid reducing the number of people showing up for Eishaa Prayer in the Mosque. According to Abu Hanifa, all prayers are postponed on cloudy days, because no prayer is valid before its time, but all regular obligatory prayers are valid after their time.

The times in which it’s disliked to pray all prayers

  • when the sun rises before it has risen the length of a spear
  • when the sun is at midpoint in the sky before Thuhr Prayer
  • when the sun becomes easy to look at before sunset until the sun has set. The only exception here is the Asr Prayer of the same day (i.e. not one that was missed)
  • The Burial Prayer and the Prostration of Reciting the Quran are valid (but disliked) if performed in these three times. All other prayers in these times would be invalid

Times in which it’s disliked to pray optional prayers

  • After Fajr Prayer before the sun has risen
  • After Asr Prayer before the time when one is able to look at the sun.
  • After the leader of the prayer has come out for the Friday Prayer Speech.
  • Before the Fajr Prayer it’s disliked to pray more than the sunnah (two subsets) of the Fajr Prayer
  • Note that:
    1. In these times one also does not pray the two subsets of Tawaaf, interrupted Optional Prayers or Vowed Prayers (vowed to be prayed)
    2. It is not disliked in these times to: pray missed obligatory prayers, make the Prostration of Recitation or pray the Burial Prayer.
    3. It’s also disliked to start any optional prayer during the call to stand to pray (iqaamah). The exception here, as long as one does not fear missing both subsets of the group prayer, is the two subsets before Fajr Prayer.

Reciting in prayer

When to perform loud or silent reciting

To recite silently means making your self hear only, whereas reciting loudly means to make others hear.

  1. The leader of the prayer recites Quran loudly as a duty:
    • In the two first subsets of all obligatory prayers except Thuhr and Asr.
    • The Friday Prayer, the Eiid prayers, Witr Prayer (in Ramadan) and taraawiiH
    • .

  2. The one praying alone may pray silently in all prayers if he likes.
  3. Optional prayers are silent in daytime, but one may recite loudly in them at night.
  4. The followers in a group prayer keep silent.
  5. Attendees of the Friday Speech keep silent (except if the speaker recites the aayah that orders to praise Prophet Muhammad (may Allah raise his rank.))
  6. If one misses the obligatory night prayer, and performs it the next day in a group, then the leader of the prayer recites loudly. However, if one is praying it alone then one must recite silently.

Forgetting Fatihah

The one who recited Quran, but forgot to recite the Faatihah in the first two subsets of an obligatory prayer, does not catch them up in the last to subsets. However, if one recited the Faatihah in the two first subsets and nothing more, then it is waajib (a duty) to catch up by reciting it again with another suurah in the two last subsets (loudly if it was supposed to have been recited aloud). One must prostrate for innatentiveness (sujuud al-sahw) in both cases above.

Obligatory and Waajib Reciting

  • The obligatory required reciting is fulfilled by a single aayah. This must be done in every subset in optional prayer, but at least in two in obligatory prayers.
  • It is a duty to read at least an additional suurah or a long aayah after the Fatihah (except in the 3rd and 4th subsets of the 5 obligatory daily prayers).
  • It is a sunnah to read the Fatihah in all subsets in obligatory prayers (but one does not add to it other reciting in the 3rd and 4th subsets).

The preferred amount to recite

The Quran is divided into 30 parts, the last three of these as a unit are called “The Divided One” because its divided into many suurahs.

  • It is a convention in the Fajr prayer and the Thuhr prayer to recite in the first two subsets between 40 and 50 aayah, or the longer suurahs of The Divided One. This is in addition to the Faatihah.
  • Other numbers have been related, and the way to make agreement between the sayings is to say that the leader recites with the hard-working 100 aayah, but with the lazy only 40, and with average people between 50 and 60. Others said that the criteria is to look at how busy people are, especially with regard to Thuhr prayer.
  • In the Asr prayer and the Eisha prayer, one should read middle length suurahs from The Divided One. For the Maghrib prayer one should recite shorter suurahs from The Divided One.
  • The first subset of the Fajr prayer should be made longer than the second one. This is to help people make the group prayer at a time when they are sleeping or drowsy.
  • The first two subsets of Thuhr prayer are equally deserving of recital length. The same is true for all the prayers except the Fajr prayer, as mentioned. It does not matter if the first or second subset is longer than the other one by two or three aayahs.
  • The traveler recites the Faatihah and any suurah, if he is in a hurry.

Wiping the Khuff

The khuff is a footwear one wipes instead of washing the foot in ablution. The khuff prevents the state of “lesser hadath” (lesser ritual impurity – the one removed by ablution) from reaching the feet for 24 hours (72 hours for the traveler.)

Conditions for Wiping the Khuff

The khuff must be worn after washing the feet, and one must complete the ablution before anything that breaks it happens. In addition, the khuff worn must meet all the following conditions:

  1. It is suitable for traveling, which means it meets the following 3 conditions:
    1. Water resistance: its material does not let wetness through to the skin when wiping. Most cotton socks will therefore not be suitable*.
    2. Firmness: if placed on the floor like a pair of shoes, then the khuff stands by itself unsupported. This includes the part going up the shin until above the ankle (i.e. it remains upright, like the leg of a leather boot)
    3. Suitability for walking: they should not be made from iron, wood or glass, since one cannot walk significant distances in these.
  2. It covers all of the area that is obligatory to wash in ablution for the foot (i.e. including the ankle.) Two important exceptions are:
    • It is allowed for each khuff to have a hole or holes that do not, when added together, exceed the size of the 3 smallest toes on the foot.
    • It is OK if one can see the ankles from above if the khuff goes above the level of the ankle and covers all sides. An example: wearing tall rubber boots.

*Note: the imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal said that one can wipe socks if nothing appears from the skin through them. Thin socks will not do, because the skin appears through the material, especially when being stretched while doing something like putting shoes on.

Invalidators of Wiping the Khuff in Ablution

  1. Doing something that requires a complete body wash (ghusl), i.e. causes greater ritual impurity
  2. Taking one single khuff off
  3. Having most of one single foot reach the (tall) shin of the khuff
  4. Having worn the khuff for more than 24 hours after breaking ones ablution with the khuff on if one is not a traveler. In other words, if someone took a complete ablution and put the khuff, he starts counting the 24 hours from the moment he broke this ablution. The traveler counts 72 hours (The traveler is someone has exited from the place he was settled, by a distance of about 1 kilometer without buildings, and is intending to travel over 98 kilometer from that breakpoint.). Note that:
    • If someone wore the khuff and was not a traveler and then left before the 24 hours were up, he continues to wear them for 72 hours.
    • If someone wore the khuff as a traveler and then became a non traveler after 24 hours had past, then he cannot continue wiping the khuff

Using socks over the Khuff

If someone wears a sock on top of the khuff before breaking ones complete ablution (washing the feet) then it is allowed to wipe the sock instead of the khuff. This is provided that wetness from the wiping reaches the khuff underneath.